Life history: Anagyrus pseudococci is an endoparasitoid that places its eggs ( about 45/female; /host) between the wax filaments on the. CITRIPAR. Anagyrus pseudococci. CITRIPAR. Unit of packaging. Anagyrus pseudococci (parasitic wasp) Pack size: 50 ml bottle. Contains: mummies mixed with. Anagyrus is a large genus of parasitic wasps from the family Encyrtidae. Anagyrus is distributed . Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault ); Anagyrus pulcher (Ashmead, ); Anagyrus pulchricornis (Howard ); Anagyrus pullus Compere.
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Anagyrus pseudococci is a well known encyrtid parasitoid capable of developing on a variety of mealybug species Planococcus spp. This wasp is used for biological control programs and is the most common commercial parasitoid reared for mealybug control Triapitsyn et al. It was first introduced into California from Brazil in for biological control of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri Risso Noyes and HayatTriapitsyn et al.
It is now widely established in California and used for biological control against the invasive vine mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret Daane et al. Its documented distribution appears to correlate with wine-growing areas.
Use as a biocontrol agent in greenhouses is more recent, with successes noted in greenhouses in Texas and Europe Noyes and Hayat The eggs are yellow-white and 0. The egg stalk will protrude through the mealybug exoskeleton and pseusococci visible from the outside. Ovipositor insertion is typically on the dorsal side near the margin Daane et al. The first and second instars are transparent to pale white and have light brown, sclerotized mouthparts Daane et al.
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pseudoccocci These instars remain attached to the host integument by the egg stalk Daane et al. Third and fourth instars hymenoptiform in shape are white with well-developed mandibles. The egg stalk connection is broken by the fourth instar Daane et al. Pupae face the posterior end of the mummified hosts.
The adults display sexual dimorphism Figures 1 and 2. Female Anagyrus pseudococci and exit hole in a mealybug host. Photograph by Kent M.
DaaneUniversity of California. The body of the male is all black. Females Figure 1 are typically 1. The lower portion of the face has dark brown markings Noyes and Hayat The sixth funicular segment is slightly longer than wide Girault The wings are hyaline with brownish veins Girault The ovipositor is short and only slightly exserted Noyes and Hayat Adult males are smaller than the females 0.
The lower part of the face is covered with conspicuous silvery setae arranged in lines Noyes and Hayat White areas are found at the base of the antennae where the antennae join the head the scape and portions of the legs. The head is flatter than that of the female. Females lay one egg that will develop inside a host, making it a solitary endoparasitoid; if multiple eggs are laid per host, only one develops Avidov et al. Oviposition is completed within seconds.
Female Anagyrus pseudococci oviposit between the wax filaments on the lateral margin of the host mealybug Avidov et al. Oviposition may occur inside mealybug nymphs or adults, though larger hosts are preferred Avidov et al.
The larvae are white and develop inside their hosts. The third instar lasts approximately one day. The larvae overwinter inside mealybug hosts Daane et al. Although development may cease at slightly higher temperatures, Anagyrus pseudococci can survive brief periods of exposure to high or low temperatures Daane et al.
Adults emerge through an irregular exit hole that they chew in the posterior end of the mummified host mealybug Figure 1 Avidov et al.
They begin emerging 12 days after oviposition Daane et al. Anagyrus pseudococci female developmental time ranges between 14 and 18 days, and male developmental time ranges between 12 and 27 days Chandler Anagyrus pseudococci is arrhenotokous; females lay unfertilized eggs that develop into males or fertilized eggs that develop into females.
Females do not need to mate to qnagyrus Chandler Females begin to oviposit 48 hours after emergence and continue until anzgyrus death. Adult females that lay fertilized eggs have anxgyrus higher fecundity than females that lay unfertilized eggs Avidov et al.
The number of offspring and the proportion of female offspring increases with host size and age Avidov et al. Average lifespan for adults is 6. The adults will feed on nectar. Adult mortality levels are not affected by humidity levels Avidov et al. Recorded hosts include citrus mealybugs, Pseudococcus citriculus Green Avidov et al.
In laboratory studies, Anagyrus pseudococci were reared on Pseudococcus longispinusPseudococcus calceolariae MaskellPlanococcus ficusPseudococcus njalensis Laing, Dysmicoccus brevipes ,and Pseudococcus affinis Maskell Noyes and HayatDaane et al.
Anagyrus pseudococci is economically important as a biological control agent for agricultural and greenhouse pest mealybugs and to control the citrus mealybug in its native range of Italy and Israel Noyes and Hayat It is a species that it is commonly used against the vine mealybug Daane et al.
The vine mealybug is of economic importance because it infests wine grapes and uses a variety of weeds as alternate hosts Gutierrez et al.
Citrus mealybugs are primary pests on citrus, but their host range includes at least 27 different plant families, including economically important indoor ornamentals, vegetables, and fruits Tingle and CopelandGill et al.
Anagyrus pseudococci is the most effective parasitoid against the pseudococfi mealybug in California, but parasitism rates did not provide adequate pest population suppression Daane et al. Development is faster than other parasitoids used to control mealybugs at all temperatures Tingle and Copeland Anagyrus pseudococci was the most commonly reared parasitoid on field-collected vine mealybugs in California Malakar-Kuenen et al.
Timing of releases is important in increasing the effectiveness of biological control programs using Anagyrus pseudococci.
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Users need to time releases to coincide with preferred temperatures for the best control Daane et al. Ants reduce the effectiveness of biological control against mealybugs, and growers will have to treat for ants to achieve the best results Daane et al.
Commercial producers of Anagyrus pseudococci recommend its use in fruit tree orchards, vineyards, and protected culture in conjunction with the mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, for the most effective control BioBee, Biological Systems Ltd. Wasps may be reared and distributed inside mummies, and they will emerge within days after delivery.
Anagyrus pseudococci Girault Insecta: Encyrtidae Introduction – Synonymy – Distribution – Description – Biology – Hosts – Economic Importance – Selected References Introduction Back to Top Anagyrus pseudococci is a well known encyrtid parasitoid capable of developing on a variety of mealybug species Planococcus spp.
Synonymy Back to Top Girault originally described it as Epidinocarsis pseudococci. Description Back to Top Pseudovocci Biology Back to Top Egg: Economic Importance Back to Top Anagyrus pseudococci anaggrus economically important as a biological control agent for agricultural and greenhouse pest mealybugs and to control the citrus mealybug in its native range of Italy and Israel Noyes and Hayat