Margot Frank - Wikipedia
Anne Frank was only 13 and her sister Margot was 16 when they went into hiding during the Holocaust. During their two years in hiding, both. What do you think they thought of each other? Anne does not write about Margot very often even though she increasingly sees Margot as a. Anne Frank was only 13 and her sister Margot was 16 when they went into hiding during the Holocaust. In The Diary of a Young Girl, Anne Frank and her family go into hiding to evade the Nazis during the Holocaust. They hide in the secret annex, which was a room built onto the back.
My sorrow disappears, my spirits are revived! But, and that's a big question, will I ever be able to write something great, will I ever become a journalist or a writer? On 5 August they were transferred to the Huis van Bewaring House of Detentionan overcrowded prison on the Weteringschans. Two days later they were transported to the Westerbork transit campthrough which by that time more thanJews, mostly Dutch and German, had passed. Having been arrested in hiding, they were considered criminals and sent to the Punishment Barracks for hard labour.
Kleiman was released after seven weeks, but Kugler was held in various work camps until the war's end. They returned to the Achterhuis the following day, and found Anne's papers strewn on the floor. They collected them, as well as several family photograph albums, and Gies resolved to return them to Anne after the war. On 7 AugustGies attempted to facilitate the release of the prisoners by confronting Silberbauer and offering him money to intervene, but he refused.
Night watchman Martin Sleegers and an unidentified police officer investigated a burglary at the premises in April and came across the bookcase concealing the secret door. Another suspect is stockroom manager Willem van Maaren. The Annex occupants did not trust him, as he seemed inquisitive regarding people entering the stockroom after hours. He once unexpectedly asked the employees whether there had previously been a Mr. Frank at the office. Several of these suspects knew one another and might have worked in collaboration.
While virtually everyone connected with the betrayal was interrogated after the war, no one was definitively identified as being the informant. A Biography of the Youngest Helper of the Secret Annexin which they alleged that Bep's younger sister Nelly — could have betrayed the Frank family.
Johannes was the one who constructed the bookcase covering the entrance to the hiding place. However, it does not rule out betrayal. Those deemed able to work were admitted into the camp, and those deemed unfit for labour were immediately killed. Of the 1, passengers, —including all children younger than 15—were sent directly to the gas chambers. Anne Frank, who had turned 15 three months earlier, was one of the youngest people spared from her transport.
She was soon made aware that most people were gassed upon arrival and never learned that the entire group from the Achterhuis had survived this selection. She reasoned that her father, in his mid-fifties and not particularly robust, had been killed immediately after they were separated. By day, the women were used as slave labour and Frank was forced to haul rocks and dig rolls of sod; by night, they were crammed into overcrowded barracks.
Some witnesses later testified Frank became withdrawn and tearful when she saw children being led to the gas chambers; others reported that more often she displayed strength and courage. Her gregarious and confident nature allowed her to obtain extra bread rations for her mother, sister, and herself. Disease was rampant; before long, Frank's skin became badly infected by scabies. The Frank sisters were moved into an infirmary, which was in a state of constant darkness and infested with rats and mice.
Edith Frank stopped eating, saving every morsel of food for her daughters and passing her rations to them through a hole she made at the bottom of the infirmary wall. Bloeme Evers-Emden was scheduled to be on this transport, but Anne was prohibited from going because she had developed scabies, and her mother and sister opted to stay with her. Bloeme went on without them. Edith Frank was left behind and died from starvation.
Frank was briefly reunited with two friends, Hanneli Goslar and Nanette Blitzwho were confined in another section of the camp. Goslar and Blitz survived the war, and discussed the brief conversations they had conducted with Frank through a fence. Blitz described Anne as bald, emaciated, and shivering.
Neither of them saw Margot, as she was too weak to leave her bunk. Anne told Blitz and Goslar she believed her parents were dead, and for that reason she did not wish to live any longer. Goslar later estimated their meetings had taken place in late January or early February However, there is evidence that she died from the epidemic.
InTurgel told the British newspaper, the Sun: Anne died a few days after Margot. The exact dates of Margot's and Anne's deaths were not recorded. It was long thought that their deaths occurred only a few weeks before British soldiers liberated the camp on 15 April but research in indicated that they may have died as early as February.
After the war, it was estimated that only 5, of theJews deported from the Netherlands between and survived. An estimated 30, Jews remained in the Netherlands, with many people aided by the Dutch underground. Approximately two-thirds of this group survived the war.
Anne Frank - Wikipedia
After the war ended, he returned to Amsterdam, where he was sheltered by Jan and Miep Gies as he attempted to locate his family. He learned of the death of his wife, Edith, in Auschwitz, but remained hopeful that his daughters had survived. After several weeks, he discovered Margot and Anne had also died.
He attempted to determine the fates of his daughters' friends and learned many had been murdered. Sanne Ledermannoften mentioned in Anne's diary, had been gassed along with her parents; her sister, Barbara, a close friend of Margot's, had survived.
In Julyafter the Red Cross confirmed the deaths of the Frank sisters, Miep Gies gave Otto Frank the diary and a bundle of loose notes that she had saved in the hope of returning them to Anne. Otto Frank later commented that he had not realized Anne had kept such an accurate and well-written record of their time in hiding.
In his memoir, he described the painful process of reading the diary, recognizing the events described and recalling that he had already heard some of the more amusing episodes read aloud by his daughter.
He saw for the first time the more private side of his daughter and those sections of the diary she had not discussed with anyone, noting, "For me it was a revelation I had no idea of the depth of her thoughts and feelings She had kept all these feelings to herself". She candidly described her life, her family and companions, and their situation, while beginning to recognize her ambition to write fiction for publication. In Marchshe heard a radio broadcast by Gerrit Bolkestein —a member of the Dutch government in exilebased in London —who said that when the war ended, he would create a public record of the Dutch people's oppression under German occupation.
She began editing her writing, removing some sections and rewriting others, with a view to publication. Her original notebook was supplemented by additional notebooks and loose-leaf sheets of paper.
She created pseudonyms for the members of the household and the helpers. In this edited version, she addressed each entry to "Kitty," a fictional character in Cissy van Marxveldt 's Joop ter Heul novels that Anne enjoyed reading.
Otto Frank used her original diary, known as "version A", and her edited version, known as "version B", to produce the first version for publication.
He removed certain passages, most notably those in which Anne is critical of her parents especially her motherand sections that discussed Frank's growing sexuality. Although he restored the true identities of his own family, he retained all of the other pseudonyms. She then gave it to her husband Jan Romeinwho wrote an article about it, titled "Kinderstem" "A Child's Voice"which was published in the newspaper Het Parool on 3 April He wrote that the diary "stammered out in a child's voice, embodies all the hideousness of fascism, more so than all the evidence at Nuremberg put together.
The first American edition, published in under the title Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girlwas positively reviewed. The book was successful in France, Germany, and the United States, but in the United Kingdom it failed to attract an audience and by was out of print.
Its most noteworthy success was in Japan, where it received critical acclaim and sold more thancopies in its first edition. In Japan, Anne Frank quickly was identified as an important cultural figure who represented the destruction of youth during the war.
It was followed by the movie The Diary of Anne Frankwhich was a critical and commercial success. It includes comparisons from all known versions, both edited and unedited. It includes discussion asserting the diary's authentication, as well as additional historical information relating to the family and the diary itself.
Center for Holocaust Education Foundation —announced in that he was in the possession of five pages that had been removed by Otto Frank from the diary prior to publication; Suijk claimed that Otto Frank gave these pages to him shortly before his death in The missing diary entries contain critical remarks by Anne Frank about her parents' strained marriage and discuss Frank's lack of affection for her mother.
The Netherlands Institute for War Documentation, the formal owner of the manuscript, demanded the pages be handed over. Since then, they have been included in new editions of the diary. Commenting on Anne Frank's writing style, the dramatist Meyer Levin commended Frank for "sustaining the tension of a well-constructed novel",  and was so impressed by the quality of her work that he collaborated with Otto Frank on a dramatization of the diary shortly after its publication.
The poet John Berryman called the book a unique depiction, not merely of adolescence but of the "conversion of a child into a person as it is happening in a precise, confident, economical style stunning in its honesty". Kennedy discussed Anne Frank in a speech, and said, "Of all the multitudes who throughout history have spoken for human dignity in times of great suffering and loss, no voice is more compelling than that of Anne Frank. Perhaps it is better that way; if we were capable of taking in all the suffering of all those people, we would not be able to live.
Anne cannot, and should not, stand for the many individuals whom the Nazis robbed of their lives But her fate helps us grasp the immense loss the world suffered because of the Holocaust. In the normal family relationship, it is the child of the famous parent who has the honour and the burden of continuing the task.
In my case the role is reversed.
This was the impact of the Holocaust, this was a family like my family, like your family and so you could understand this. The Most Important People of the Century ". He writes, "The reason for her immortality was basically literary.Anne & Margot Frank :: My immortal.
She was an extraordinarily good writer, for any age, and the quality of her work seemed a direct result of a ruthlessly honest disposition. Wiesenthal indeed began searching for Karl Silberbauer and found him in When interviewed, Silberbauer admitted his role, and identified Anne Frank from a photograph as one of the people arrested.
Silberbauer provided a full account of events, even recalling emptying a briefcase full of papers onto the floor. The antisemitic measures increasingly restricted the lives of Jews in the Netherlands. After the summer break ofMargot had to leave the Lyceum for Girls and transfer to the Jewish Lyceum.
Margot's first report card from the Jewish Lyceum, which she received on 3 Julywas no surprise. In her diary, Anne wrote: Her parents feared for her life and decided to go into hiding the next day. It specifies what they can take with them, for example work clothes and work boots, and when they have to leave, 16 July Dutch Resistance Museum, Amsterdam Dream profession: She shared a room with her sister.
Then there were eight people in hiding on two floors. From the moment Fritz Pfeffer joined them, Margot slept in her parents' room. This must not have been easy on a sixteen-year-old girl. Margot worked hard in the Secret Annex.
In her diary Anne made an impressive list of what Margot was studying and reading: Margot saw a future for herself as a maternity nurse in Palestine. It became clear how alone she must have felt, when Anne and Peter fell in love. When Anne suspected that her sister also had feelings for Peter, Margot denied this. In a short note to Anne, she wrote: According to Victor Kugler, who was present at the arrest, 'Margot was crying softly.
The men and women were separated on the platform. Typhus In Auschwitz-Birkenau, Margot and the other prisoners were forced to cut sods or carry stones.
The camp management regularly organised selections: Margot and Anne were part of a group that was put on the train to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in the night of 1 November. After a gruelling journey, they arrived in the overcrowded camp. The conditions in Bergen-Belsen were terrible, there was little food and hygiene was poor.
Infectious diseases broke out. Margot and Anne became infected with spotted typhus. Rachel van Amerongen-Frankfoorder, a fellow prisoner, would later recall: