The future of social relations | Pew Research Center
The historiography of the British Empire refers to the studies, sources, critical methods and . The London bureaucracy governing the colonies also changed, policies to and the readjustment of Britain's constitutional relationship with its colonies." In the six volume The Oxford Survey Of The British Empire gave. Britain and Canada: Survey of a Changing Relationship (Studies in Commonwealth Politics and History) [Peter Lyon] on jingle-bells.info *FREE* shipping on. of Change in the Health Care Arena in the United States, Britain, and Canada: care arena elevated the importance of bargaining relationships among large, . survey of the status of health care reforms in Britain, US and Canada - a must.
The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire, — and explains Britain's defeat in terms of alienating the major powers on the Continent. Theories of imperialism[ edit ] Main article: Imperialism Theories about imperialism typically focus on the Second British Empire,  with side glances elsewhere.
The term "Imperialism" was originally introduced into English in its present sense in the s by Liberal leader William Gladstone to ridicule the imperial policies of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeliwhich he denounced as aggressive and ostentatious and inspired by domestic motives. For some, imperialism designated a policy of idealism and philanthropy; others alleged that it was characterized by political self-interest, and a growing number associated it with capitalist greed.
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Hobsona leading English Liberal, developed a highly influential economic exploitation model in Imperialism: A Study that expanded on his belief that free enterprise capitalism had a negative impact on the majority of the population. In Imperialism he argued that the financing of overseas empires drained money that was needed at home. It was invested abroad because lower wages paid the workers overseas made for higher profits and higher rates of return, compared to domestic wages.
So although domestic wages remained higher, they did not grow nearly as fast as they might have otherwise. Exporting capital, he concluded, put a lid on the growth of domestic wages in the domestic standard of living. By the s, historians such as David K. Fieldhouse  and Oren Hale could argue that the, "Hobsonian foundation has been almost completely demolished.
However, European Socialists picked up Hobson's ideas and made it into their own theory of imperialism, most notably in Lenin's Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism Lenin portrayed Imperialism as the closure of the world market and the end of capitalist free-competition that arose from the need for capitalist economies to constantly expand investment, material resources and manpower in such a way that necessitated colonial expansion.
Later Marxist theoreticians echo this conception of imperialism as a structural feature of capitalism, which explained the World War as the battle between imperialists for control of external markets. Lenin's treatise became a standard textbook that flourished until the collapse of communism in — Those changes reflect a growing unease, even squeamishness, with the fact of power, specifically, Western power.
Much of the debate was pioneered by such theorists as John A. While these non-Marxist writers were at their most prolific before World War I, they remained active in the interwar years. Their combined work informed the study of imperialism's impact on Europe, as well as contributed to reflections on the rise of the military-political complex in the United States from the s.
Hobson argued that domestic social reforms could cure the international disease of imperialism by removing its economic foundation. Hobson theorized that state intervention through taxation could boost broader consumption, create wealth, and encourage a peaceful multilateral world order.
Conversely, should the state not intervene, rentiers people who earn income from property or securities would generate socially negative wealth that fostered imperialism and protectionism. Fieldhousefor example, argues that they used superficial arguments.
Fieldhouse says that the "obvious driving force of British expansion since " came from explorers, missionaries, engineers, and empire-minded politicians. They had little interest in financial investments.
Hobson's answer was to say that faceless financiers manipulated everyone else, so that "The final determination rests with the financial power. They were no longer dynamic and sought to maintain profits by even more intensive exploitation of protected markets.
Fieldhouse rejects these arguments as unfounded speculation. The Imperialism of Free Trade Historians agree that in the s, Britain adopted a free-trade policy, meaning open markets and no tariffs throughout the empire.
The article helped launch the Cambridge School of historiography. Gallagher and Robinson used the British experience to construct a framework for understanding European imperialism that swept away the all-or-nothing thinking of previous historians. Much more important was informal influence in independent areas.
Roger Louis, "In their view, historians have been mesmerized by formal empire and maps of the world with regions colored red. The bulk of British emigration, trade, and capital went to areas outside the formal British Empire. Key to their thinking is the idea of empire 'informally if possible and formally if necessary.
Cabinet decisions to annex or not to annex were made, usually on the basis of political or geopolitical considerations. He says that Britain achieved its goal of increasing its economic interests in many areas, "but the broader goal of 'regenerating' societies and thereby creating regions tied as 'tributaries' to British economic interests was not attained.
Local economies and local regimes proved adept at restricting the reach of British trade and investment. Local impediments to foreign inroads, the inhabitants' low purchasing power, the resilience of local manufacturing, and the capabilities of local entrepreneurs meant that these areas effectively resisted British economic penetration.
The approach is most often applied to American policies. Canada adopted a "national policy" of high tariffs in the late 19th century, in sharp distinction to the mother country. The goal was to protect its infant manufacturing industries from low-cost imports from the United States and Britain.
Economic historians have debated at length the impact of these tariff changes on economic growth. One controversial formulation by Bairoch argues that in the — era: Hopkins in the s before being fully developed in their work, British Imperialism. It encourages a shift of emphasis away from seeing provincial manufacturers and geopolitical strategy as important influences, and towards seeing the expansion of empire as emanating from London and the financial sector.
They have focused on British conceptions of imperial world order from the late 19th century to the Cold War. The notion of "benevolence" was developed in the — era by idealists whose moralistic prescriptions annoyed efficiency-oriented colonial administrators and profit-oriented merchants. The most successful development came in the abolition of slavery led by William Wilberforce and the Evangelicals,  and the expansion of Christian missionary work.
The Treaty of Waitangiinitially designed to protect Maori rights, has become the bedrock of Aotearoa—New Zealand biculturalism. In the 18th century, British merchant ships were the largest element in the "Middle Passage", which transported millions of slaves to the Western Hemisphere. Most of those who survived the journey wound up in the Caribbean, where the Empire had highly profitable sugar colonies, and the living conditions were bad the plantation owners lived in Britain.
Parliament ended the international transportation of slaves in and used the Royal Navy to enforce that ban. Init bought out the plantation owners and banned slavery. Historians before the s argued that moralistic reformers such as William Wilberforce were primarily responsible.
It was more profitable to sell the slaves to the government than to keep up operations. The prohibition of the international trade, Williams argued, prevented French expansion on other islands. Meanwhile, British investors turned to Asia, where labor was so plentiful that slavery was unnecessary.
Williams went on to argue that slavery played a major role in making Britain prosperous. The high profits from the slave trade, he said, helped finance the Industrial Revolution. Britain enjoyed prosperity because of the capital gained from the unpaid work of slaves. Richardson further challenges claims by African scholars that the slave trade caused widespread depopulation and economic distress in Africa but that it caused the "underdevelopment" of Africa.
Admitting the horrible suffering of slaves, he notes that many Africans benefited directly because the first stage of the trade was always firmly in the hands of Africans. European slave ships waited at ports to purchase cargoes of people who were captured in the hinterland by African dealers and tribal leaders. Richardson finds that the "terms of trade" how much the ship owners paid for the slave cargo moved heavily in favour of the Africans after about That is, indigenous elites inside West and Central Africa made large and growing profits from slavery, thus increasing their wealth and power.
Macaulay simultaneously was a leading reformer involved in transforming the educational system of India. He would base it on the English language so that India could join the mother country in a steady upward progress. Macaulay took Burke's emphasis on moral rule and implemented it in actual school reforms, giving the British Empire a profound moral mission to civilize the natives.
Paul Boglea Baptist deacon, was hanged for leading the Morant Bay rebellion in Jamaica, Yale professor Karuna Mantena has argued that the civilizing mission did not last long, for she says that benevolent reformers were the losers in key debates, such as those following the rebellion in India, and the scandal of Governor Edward Eyre 's brutal repression of the Morant Bay rebellion in Jamaica in The rhetoric continued but it became an alibi for British misrule and racism.
No longer was it believed that the natives could truly make progress, instead they had to be ruled by heavy hand, with democratic opportunities postponed indefinitely. The central tenets of liberal imperialism were challenged as various forms of rebellion, resistance and instability in the colonies precipitated a broad-ranging reassessment Much of the debate took place in Britain itself, and the imperialists worked hard to convince the general population that the civilising mission was well underway.
This campaign served to strengthen imperial support at home, and thus, says Cain, to bolster the moral authority of the gentlemanly elites who ran the Empire. Medical experts found that epidemic disease had seriously depleted the fighting capacity of British troops in repressing the rebellion in and insisted that preventive measures were much more effective than waiting for the next epidemic to break out.
They applied the best practices as developed in Britain, using an elaborate administrative structure in each colony. The system depended on trained local elites and officials to carry out the sanitation improvements, quarantines, inoculations, hospitals, and local treatment centers that were needed. For example, local midwives were trained to provide maternal and infant health care.
Propaganda campaigns using posters, rallies, and later films were used to educate the general public. BELRA, a large-scale program against leprosy, had policies of isolation in newly established leper colonies, separation of healthy children from infected parents, and the development in Britain of chaulmoogra oil therapy and its systematic dissemination.
The missionaries[ edit ] In the 18th century, and even more so in the 19th century, missionaries based in Britain saw the Empire as a fertile field for proselytizing for Christianity. Congregations across Britain received regular reports and contributed money. Much of the enthusiasm emerged from the Evangelical revival. After the revolution an entirely distinct American Methodist denomination emerged that became the largest Protestant denomination in the new United States. After the Americans broke free, British officials decided to enhance the power and wealth of the Church of England in all the settler colonies, especially British North America Canada.
Tensions emerged between the missionaries and the colonial officials. The latter feared that missionaries might stir up trouble or encourage the natives to challenge colonial authority. In general, colonial officials were much more comfortable with working with the established local leadership, including the native religions, rather than introducing the divisive force of Christianity.
This proved especially troublesome in India, were very few local elites were attracted to Christianity. In Africa, especially, the missionaries made many converts. By the 21st century there were more Anglicans in Nigeria than in England. The introduction of European medicine was especially important, as well as the introduction of European political practices and ideals ideals such as religious liberty, mass education, mass printing, newspapers, voluntary organizations, colonial reforms, and especially liberal democracy.
They tried to upgrade education, medical care, and sponsored the long-term modernization of the native personality to inculcate European middle-class values. Alongside their churches they established schools and medical clinics, and sometimes demonstrated improved farming techniques. Many were trained as physicians, or took special courses in public health and tropical medicine at Livingstone College, London. At first, missionary societies officially enrolled only men, but women increasingly insisted on playing a variety of roles.
Single women typically worked as educators. Wives assisted their missionary husbands in most of his roles. Advocates stopped short of calling for the end of specified gender roles, but they stressed the interconnectedness of the public and private spheres and spoke out against perceptions of women as weak and house-bound. The Imperial government took a strong hand in India, and most of the later colonies. The goal was To speed up modernization and social development through a widespread system of elementary education for all natives, plus high school and eventually university education for selected elites.
The students were encouraged to attend university in Britain. More recent scholarship has examined who the bureaucrats and governors were, as well as the role of the colonial experience on their own lives and families. I think the Connecting energy creates positive dynamics and overwhelms the Cocooning.
Spending more time online and being more wired to each other via various devices comes at the expense of real-time, deep, meaningful human interaction. It strengthens our relationships with distant friends and relations through social networks and email, but may damage the relationships of those nearer to us as always-on technologies and applications eat into family and social time.
I have an expanded circle of social connections, and stay in touch more. However, I also have less deep connections. It is interesting the number of developing adults that function well in a keyboard setting while failing at human interaction e. For better or worse. It keeps me in constant communication with my sister, my daughter, and a few friends who live far away. While it leads to more otaku [surfing, playing video games, and watching anime alone] and grownups playing World of Warcraft, it also means fewer people getting in drunken fights in the parking lots of bars because they think someone looks odd.
I believe, though, that overall, the increasing ease of connection with people at a distance is improving social relations much more than the occasional gaffe or thoughtless act is harming them.
There will always be people who damage their relationships spectacularly, and if the internet were not available to them, they would do it another way. The benefits far outweigh the drawbacks. The internet creates a huge range of often-novel choices from which end-users construct their own adaptive behaviors. The important determining factors in personal friendships, marriages, and other relationships remain with the individual.England vs Canada - Why England Wins
The internet facilitates anti-social behaviors like identity theft, and positive behaviors like keeping in close touch with relatives in faraway places, to such a degree that they become almost unimaginable in the pre-Internet age. My sense is that, once you eliminate outliers and freakish behaviors, the internet will continue to bestow tremendous opportunities for social growth on most people, in most circumstances.
Those who are social will become more so, that is, and those who are loners will deepen their solitude. I expect research on this question to show something different over time. The early question had to do with the question of whether there were changes in the behavior of individuals when they went online. Now that digital natives begin and continue online, this is no longer a meaningful variable. But norms take longer to develop than technologies.
And where you stand depends on your circumstances. For me, the net is a wonderful learning network and for some it is a lifeline and for others it is a tether to their boss or a source of harmful misinformation, disinformation, and distraction.
Since when is the world starkly divided into either-or alternatives? For many, life will be alienated, rushed, and confusing because of their involvement online. Others will choose or will learn or be trained to cope with dangers of an always-on lifestyle. One has only to look at the hype around iranelection to see the capacity for giddy optimism to be supplanted by calculated abuse of power. The internet can be a positive force for creating reinforcing social connections, and a negative for abuse of civil liberties and increasing polarization of opinion.
Emigration experiences are different now when it is easier to check back in with homeland folk. Old communities and longstanding ties need not be given up when people move to new communities and create new ties. In many ways I think communities will still be location-based, but the ease of providing information and communicating with each other will be possible on a global scale. Now people who move from one country to another simply enlarge their social networks, building truly global communities.
IM, video chat, and Skype have all made my experience of emigration very different from previous generations of the Irish abroad. Looking to the future, I have no doubt that continued refinement of these technologies will continue to enhance our ability to keep in touch with family and friends from whom we may be physically separated.
Historiography of the British Empire
My son in high school is as close in January to the friends he sees only in the summers as he is in July. Both have met and befriended people far away from our home. Sometimes their friends are in our house talking, watching TV or playing games. They navigate the online social universe as easily as I drive my well-worn path to the office. I have had the opportunity to celebrate joyous occasions, share sad news and grieve, and ask for and receive help.
Given the small town my mother lives in and my distance from her, I had been unable to find any help at all prior to posting a plea for help on Facebook.
Some say that too many people are straying away from face-to-face relationships. It will change the way we use certain tools such as the phone and how we connect, but will allow us to stay more connected to friends and family who are no longer in our local area.
The internet modifies traditional space so that existing places are extended in ways that allow us to stay aware, share and intersect with people with whom we are not in the same traditional space. The internet is the opposite of suburbanization: That does not mean that physical presence is not important in relationships.
Lack of physical presence is not the fault of the internet; rather, it stems from the way the world is configured globalization, suburbanization, increased population, etc. The internet replaced lack of physical presence with social presence. Communication channels that used to be via printed and telephone mediums will be transported to new online mediums, primarily accessed via mobile devices.
We can better use it to facilitate work relationships so that people might spend more time in the physical presence of the people they love, or, at very least, in the company of clients rather than in the company of superiors.
Almost all knowledge work can be performed anywhere. Recognition of that essential fact is the first step in using information technology to better connect families and sow stronger social and community bonds. Instead of one-to-one relations, we can time-shift core information one-to-many and focus real time on deepening existing relationships.
A decade ago, a finite number of connections and interactions offline meant that there was actually a high opportunity cost to relationships.
We could have deep relationships, but there was a detriment to other types, even if they were surface or fringe connections. Now, the social grid gives us the luxury to keep low-involvement relationships — past contacts, former classmates, etc. By posting status updates, photos and videos online, friends and family can browse our lives on their own time and place and as often as they chose to. These technologies all me to keep everyone in the loop without me actually having to proactively keep everyone up to date.
The internet makes staying in touch easy; the sharing thoughts, feelings, experiences richer; and reaching out for new friendships and interests is a glue that ties us to the global community. As the internet matures even more, and even greater real bandwidth is possible, so the ability to enrich these connections can only grow and grow as our social bandwidth grows with it. While I love technology and know that it has expanded the amount of connections I can have and strengthens certain relationships, I also think that bythe idea of turning off technology is going to be the equivalent of trying to stay dry when you are underwater.
And I think relationships require uninterrupted time. They require being present. And the more immersive our world will be bythe negative result of this constant interruption with people we truly care about will be only harder as we are pulled in even more directions.
It will be the ultimate test to see if we can give our relationship what they truly need to grow. There are exceptions, of course: Witness the apparent, anecdotal success of online dating sites. Think of the great relationships of old carried on through postal mail correspondence.
Historiography of the British Empire - Wikipedia
It is possible that these new ways to interact will perhaps inspire more tolerance and global understanding. The internet should build tolerance through greater exposure and understanding, and tolerance should improve human and community relations.
We just need to make the infrastructure ubiquitous and affordable. The only issue here would be censorship. I firmly believe that differences tend to dissolve as people come into contact and interact with each other, dissipating stereotypes. The human diaspora, from one tribe in Africa to thousands of scattered tribes — and now countries — throughout the world, was driven to a high degree by misunderstandings and disagreements between groups. Hatred and distrust between groups have caused countless wars and suffering beyond measure.
Anything that helps us bridge our differences and increase understanding is a good thing. Clearly the internet already does that.
Byintegrated social networking, cross-national and cross-cultural dialogue, and internet-enabled friendships will be some of the great arguments for the social good of the internet. The internet will be the mechanism for allowing the necessary interactions.
But it also makes it easier for me to retreat within a form-fitted political, religious, or social landscape. The internet makes it easier for me to avoid disagreement and compromise and encourages me to become more strident and polarized in my views.
The ability to narrowcast on the internet and the tendency for netizens to hang out exclusively with their own tribe combined with the literal disappearance of mainstream mass media will, I believe, be a negative force for all sorts of relations — maybe not so much family relations, but certainly other social relations. We learned about things we would never think of querying a search engine about. In fact, I think online publishers — desperate to pay the bills — will use software agents, cookies, etc.
They will feel, and be, rich in many ways — other than touching. Neo-tribalism will start to replace nuclear families, although this will be considered illegitimate and immoral by old-timers. The depth of these connections generally by platform, location, or group e.
Facebook friends are at one depth, connections made through dating sites at another, while in-person connections are at yet another level of intimacy and relationship depth. Why should the internet be any different? I am continuously amazed at the ability of people to adapt the net to improve their interpersonal links. My larger concern is, again, with education — that we need to emphasize the liberal arts, theatre, literature, and the like so that we can learn how to express ourselves and understand one another.
The art of politics, which I believe will become an increasingly important art as we try to solve difficult problems, requires considerable ability to express and understand, and to have empathy with foreign cultures.
The net will be a tool, but we need to teach ourselves how to be good users of that tool. And we have to be able to partition our groups of contacts as we do in real life work, church, etc. More sophisticated social networks will probably evolve to reflect our real relationships more closely, but people have to take the lead and refuse to let technical options determine how they conduct their relationships.
We will be more connected to the world than ever before, but in far less meaningful ways. I believe this disintegration of interpersonal relations will spawn counter-cultural movements that might seriously resemble Amish or Mennonite communities. These enclaves will appear to outsiders as confused and befuddled, but will offer their members a rich and rewarding human experience. This possibility will lead to several new psychological and medical syndromes that will be variations of depression caused by the lack of meaningful quality relationships.
And it will also be possible for people to have more quality relationships with a more diverse population — including close relationships with people geographically and temporally distant.
Our notions of household and community will have to change to accommodate this phenomenon and our laws regarding families and households will also have to change. This will allow the average person to gain a greater understanding of the world from the eyes of other average people from different countries and cultures.
Governments will need to adjust to this new world society. The most obvious difference in the tech realm is tied to age. Younger users are simply different in their use of tech and their approach to social relations from older users. One of these differences is the advent of the supercommunicator. We do have to worry about the digital divide risk though.
It is critical that we focus on inclusiveness as we drive this forward globally.