U.S.-Mexico Relations: CQR
U.S.-CANADA RELATIONS. The United Canada and the United States have one of the world's largest investment relationships. The United. Outlook, Pro/Con, Chronology, Short Features, Maps/Graphs, Bibliography The relationship between the United States and Mexico is at the center . Mexico ranks behind only Canada and China as a top U.S. trading  “–, Immigration and Smuggling,” Timeline U.S.-Mexico Relations. President Trump has opened a rift with one of America's closest allies. But things have been worse. Here's everything you need to know.
When did tensions subside? Nevertheless, there have been flashes of disagreement over the decades, especially regarding American foreign policy. Some 30, Americans fled to Canada to avoid the draft during the Vietnam War, which Canada opposed. It also refused to join the U.
Canada–United States relations
Canadians have long been leery of being dominated by their much larger neighbor, which has a population nearly 10 times that of Canada. He says America is being treated unfairly, falsely claiming that the country runs a trade deficit with Canada.
Trump is particularly angry about Canada's fierce protection of its dairy farmers. Canada sets production quotas for dairy, eggs, and poultry products to keep prices stable and guarantee farmers a steady income, while charging tariffs of up to percent on imported dairy products. The Trump administration wants Canada to open up its dairy market as part of the ongoing renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement.
Canadians point out that the U. Canada offered to open up its dairy market to join the Trans-Pacific Trade Partnership, but Trump pulled out of the agreement in one of his first acts as president. Historically, Canadians have had a positive view of the U. For the first time in more than three decades, more Canadians have an unfavorable view of the U. The myth that the Canadian militia had defeated the invasion almost single-handed, known logically as the "militia myth", became highly prevalent after the war, having been propounded by John StrachanAnglican Bishop of York.
A small interlocking elite, known as the Family Compact took full political control. Democracy, as practiced in the US, was ridiculed.
The policies had the desired effect of deterring immigration from United States. Revolts in favor of democracy in Ontario and Quebec "Lower Canada" in were suppressed; many of the leaders fled to the US. Alabama claims[ edit ] An editorial cartoon on Canada—United States relations, I have told him that we can never be united.
One result was toleration of Fenian efforts to use the U.
Canada–United States relations - Wikipedia
More serious was the demand for a huge payment to cover the damages caused, on the notion that British involvement had lengthened the war. Seward negotiated the Alaska Purchase with Russia inhe intended it as the first step in a comprehensive plan to gain control of the entire northwest Pacific Coast. Seward was a firm believer in Manifest Destinyprimarily for its commercial advantages to the U. Seward expected British Columbia to seek annexation to the U.
Soon other elements endorsed annexation, Their plan was to annex British ColumbiaRed River Colony Manitobaand Nova Scotiain exchange for the dropping the damage claims. The idea reached a peak in the spring and summer ofwith American expansionists, Canadian separatists, and British anti-imperialists seemingly combining forces.
The plan was dropped for multiple reasons. London continued to stall, American commercial and financial groups pressed Washington for a quick settlement of the dispute on a cash basis, growing Canadian nationalist sentiment in British Columbia called for staying inside the British Empire, Congress became preoccupied with Reconstruction, and most Americans showed little interest in territorial expansion.
The " Alabama Claims " dispute went to international arbitration. Britain paid and the episode ended in peaceful relations.
Prior to Confederation, there was an Oregon boundary dispute in which the Americans claimed the 54th degree latitude. That issue was resolved by splitting the disputed territory; the northern half became British Columbia, and the southern half the states of Washington and Oregon. Strained relations with America continued, however, due to a series of small-scale armed incursions named the Fenian raids by Irish-American Civil War veterans across the border from to in an attempt to trade Canada for Irish independence.
The British government, in charge of diplomatic relations, protested cautiously, as Anglo-American relations were tense. Much of the tension was relieved as the Fenians faded away and in by the settlement of the Alabama Claimswhen Britain paid the U.
Disputes over ocean boundaries on Georges Bank and over fishing, whaling, and sealing rights in the Pacific were settled by international arbitration, setting an important precedent.
French American Afterthe pace of industrialization and urbanization was much faster in the United States, drawing a wide range of immigrants from the North.
Charting the US-China trade battle
It was common for people to move back and forth across the border, such as seasonal lumberjacks, entrepreneurs looking for larger markets, and families looking for jobs in the textile mills that paid much higher wages than in Canada.
By then, the American frontier was closing, and thousands of farmers looking for fresh land moved from the United States north into the Prairie Provinces. The net result of the flows were that in there wereAmerican-born residents in Canada 3.
The issue was unimportant until a gold rush brought tens of thousands of men to Canada's Yukon, and they had to arrive through American ports. Canada needed its port and claimed that it had a legal right to a port near the present American town of HainesAlaska. It would provide an all-Canadian route to the rich goldfields. The dispute was settled by arbitration, and the British delegate voted with the Americans—to the astonishment and disgust of Canadians who suddenly realized that Britain considered its relations with the United States paramount compared to those with Canada.
The arbitrartion validated the status quo, but made Canada angry at Britain. To head off future embarrassments, in the two sides signed the International Boundary Waters Treaty and the International Joint Commission was established to manage the Great Lakes and keep them disarmed. It was amended in World War II to allow the building and training of warships. Canadian manufacturing interests were alarmed that free trade would allow the bigger and more efficient American factories to take their markets.
The Conservatives made it a central campaign issue in the electionwarning that it would be a "sell out" to the United States with economic annexation a special danger. Canada subsequently took responsibility for its own foreign and military affairs in the s.
That would restrain household consumption growth and trigger, as we have long feared, a hard landing in the overvalued housing market. The index, which tracks the proportion of disposable income that a representative Canadian family spends on carrying a mortgage and utilities, has indeed trended upward in recent quarters. But it remains below its long-term average, suggesting a downturn in the housing market is not imminent at the national level.
As the chart shows, Canadian entrepreneurs attract a woeful amount of venture capital as compared to their American counterparts. Beyond the justification of the interest-rate differentials, a real thematic rationale for current and future dollar strength is in play.
Rising rate expectations in the U. Simply put, changing the trajectory of the policy mix in the United States toward looser fiscal and tighter monetary policy is a classic setup for an appreciating currency and especially in a global sense where the rest of the world is not on that same trajectory. This strength will have a host of knock-on effects, from making oil priced in dollars more expensive to the rest of the world to pressuring emerging economies that have dollar-denominated debt.
As usual, the actual outcome will fall somewhere between, but investors need to keep an eye on these developments. Not only have federal health-care transfers grown by half over the past decade, the current trends will see Ottawa covering nearly 40 cents of every new dollar that provincial and territorial governments put into heath care. Ottawa is doing more than its share—unless of course the provinces plan to let spending rip and want Ottawa to pick up the growing tab.
What to watch for in Over the last two years, total employment in resource extraction is down almost 21 per cent most of that in Alberta. But average weekly earnings—which are the highest in the country—continue to rise. This tells us two things. The first is that Canada has lost a lot of very high paying jobs. That is taking a toll on the macro-economy, especially in the west. The second thing we learn is that energy companies are opting to cut staff, not wages.
Policies like CPP were designed to support that. Many choose to stay at home in unpaid work despite good job opportunities 29 per cent have a university degree ; some would have difficulty covering child care costs; others will remain out of the labour force after their children are grown.
All moms want others to recognize their work is important. But when should we require transfers—as taxes or benefits—from some mothers to others? In addition, foreign money pouring out of China, Russia and the hard-hit cities of Europe is buying homes in these two very attractive cities.
A brief history of Canadian-American relations
I believe housing markets in both cities will slow in owing to government restrictions and regulatory changes in the mortgage markets, which are already under upward interest rate pressure. Should interest rates rise, it could lead to billions more being spent on interest rather than programs and services. New regulations on the mortgage market are coming into effect and their potency has been the subject of much speculation.