Filial care and the relationship with the elderly in families of different nationalities
This book takes a close look at family relationships at the end of the life cycle. Elderly People and their Families. Authors; (view Family Care and the State. Elderly People and their Families representative sample of people aged 75 or more in a major British city, it investigates in depth what the caring relationship. identify how filial care and the relationship with the elderly occur in families of different nationalities. Method: qualitative study carried out in a town on the triple .
This study was proposed to answer these questions, aimed to identify how filial care and the relationship with elderly occur in families of different nationalities.
All participants signed a free and informed consent form in two copies. To ensure anonymity, respondents were identified by the first letter of their country of origin followed by the respective order of the interview in each nationality. Letters M and F were used to identify male and female individuals, followed by their respective ages.
Theoretical framework and type of study This study adopted the Grounded Theory GT assumptions as methodological line, and the Symbolic Interactionism SI as theoretical framework. The GT is aimed to understand social phenomena based on the experiences of social actors and their significant aspects, through comparison, encoding and extraction of similarities in the speeches of each individual 6. The SI, in turn, brings a perspective focused on human interaction, in an attempt to understand the symbolic traits of social life through knowledge, perception or meaning of a given personal context 7.
Participants should also be able to answer the study questions and belong to nationalities of great cultural and population representativeness in the municipality characterized by the preservation of beliefs, religion and habits among descendants. In addition, the researchers tried to include nationalities from three continents: Europe, Asia and America, considering that there are few immigrants from Africa and Oceania in the municipality.
For the last, their parents should also be born in Brazil.
It is worth mentioning that, although the nationalities of the elderly people in the participating states was pre-selected, the study complied with the principles of sample and theoretical saturation defined by the GT. Therefore, the sample size and composition were defined during the investigation process 6 because places and actors to be part of the study were only identified at data analysis.
Caring for Aging Parents
Hence, as the old individuals of each pre-defined nationality were interviewed and the speeches of individuals in the same group were compared to the others' speeches, new elderly people were selected to the study. For example, during the initial interviews it was observed that cultures where religion is strongly present, like the Lebanese, family care to the elderly was a natural condition.
This brought about the need for interviewing elderly people belonging to nationalities where religion is present, but to a lesser extent, like the French.
As data analysis advanced, new directions emerged for data collection. Theoretical saturation was defined when no data that provided new insights could be found and, therefore, contribute to understand the phenomenon in study.
Data collection For data collection the participants were exhaustively sought in the municipality at Basic Health Units, Elderly Socialization Centers and language schools, and also appointed by the respondentes.
After getting the individuals' contact, data were collected from February to Augustat the elderly individuals' home to observe the environment and habits and better understand the meanings and their relationships to the environment.
What is elderly care like in your culture? In your culture, what are the children's responsibilities to their old parents? What does family mean to you?
Diagrams and memos were created during data collection and analysis to support new interviews.
Data analysis Data were analyzed as they were collected, in a three-stage process: In open encoding, data were analyzed line-to-line and compared according to similarities and differences, followed by conceptualization, an abstract representation of a fact or action considered to be important 6which was further incorporated to new interviews.
In the axial encoding, the data divided during the previous phase were regrouped and the preliminary link between categories and sub-categories was then established. The selective encoding, in turn, was the moment to integrate and refine the categories so that the results could take on the shape of theory. This is the moment when one can reach a central category that expresses the research topic and, based on this, seek for consistence in data to validate the theory 7.
Theory was validated by presenting the theoretical model produced to the elderly that made no major changes, thus approving the explanatory model as they recognized themselves and their perceptions and experiences.
The core process identified in the study was called: The five categories part of one of these processes will be presented herein, as follows: Perceiving that sociocultural practices modulate family relationships and bring meaning to filial care in old age. The following categories emerged from data analysis: The Lebanese, for instance, through respect and by raising their children based on religious and cultural principles, showed their actual responsibility to their parents, expressed by embracement in old age.
Looking for other ways to read this?
Family really worries about me, both the wife and the children. When everything is well, ok, when things are going bad the family sends you away. It is not right. Thanks God our race is different; the Arab people is this way, we respect the elderly.
Family Support in Graying Societies
L3, M, 75 years old In order to preserve culture, understood as habits and uses, the Lebanese keep respect for the elderly, although not as effectively as in their country of origin.
We always try to preserve our culture, our uses. But we don't raise them as if we were there Lebanon because there they respect more than here, respect father and mother more than they do here.
L2, F, 60 years old To them, the family - rather than other people - should take care of the elderly and should not send them to care institutions. This interaction involves construing the meanings of actions observed among individuals, which show how each one is expected to act. Among some Brazilian elderly people, in turn, the feeling of union and the concern about staying close to their children prevail.
To them, aging in the family is a reason for happiness and fulfillment. They say that just like their children they have also taken care of their parents: Every time she got sick, my brothers called me and I spent some time there, taking care of her, I only returned when she was feeling better; I took care of her until she died.
B2, F, 74 years old Those with some disease-related dependence proudly reported the concerns of their children about them. This son of mine stays here because my daughter works all day long, so they fear to leave me alone, that I fall, get hurt.
He has the workshop back there, so he works a little there and takes care of me. If I need anything, he does it. B7, F, 75 years old It is worth mentioning that for Brazilians, care institutions are not the best place to live in old age; elderly people should live with their families. I believe it's wrong, it's sad dying in a care institution, because you were useful for some time and when you get older they send you to an institution.How to Relieve the Stress of Caring for an Aging Parent: Amy O'Rourke at TEDxOrlando
B8, F, 86 years old Brazilian elderly people also said that when they were young, mainly when one of the parents died, they intuitively took on the responsibility over the younger siblings. And now, in the old age, needing care, they feel awarded because they feel embraced by their children. When my mom died, I came to live with my father, because my younger siblings were now alone, so I came to take care of them. When my husband died, seven years ago, my daughter came to live with me and take care of me, because I was all by myself.
B9, F, 94 years old Among the Chinese, when a family member dies, providing care to the elderly and to the family is a tacit obligation, although they question the preservation of this habit out of China: The oldest son or daughter has the obligation, when the father or mother dies, to take on the responsibility over the siblings.
That's why there should be a son in the family, to continue with the family's surname. In the past, yes, but now C1, F, 60 years old They believe that when the elderly is rejected by their children, they made a mistake when raising those children. Chinese likes being together, if there is an ill-mannered child, they send the father or mother to an institution. Why don't they care? They have no responsibility.
C2, M, 70 years old In respect for the habits of his culture, one of the old Chinese said he immigrated to Brazil when he found that his father was sick and needing care: By that time my father was here in Brazil alone, and was not very healthy, so I came to Brazil, I wanted to lend a hand to him. I'm the oldest son, I must take care of them. This is part of the Chinese culture, when needed, the oldest son must take on. The oldest son has more responsibility with brothers, sisters; if parents come to die, he will take on the responsibility C4, M, 63 years.
The Chinese believe that the care of parents must be passed on through generations, because it is part of the Eastern culture. Children must be taught so when they grow up they respond. Surveys with long reference periods e. Families Caring for an Aging America. The National Academies Press.
Due to resource constraints, all the surveys that are relevant to family caregiving are limited in size, which in turn limits subgroup analyses. No current survey has sufficient power to assess the needs and experiences of older adults and their caregivers by all of the varied subgroups of interest, including those defined by race and ethnicity, rural residence, or sexual orientation.
It is also important to recognize that while data are available on older adults who need but do not have a family caregiver, it has not been analyzed.
Comparisons between these individuals and older adults who receive help are not available Freedman and Spillman, a ; Freedman et al. Disability surveys typically identify older adults with functional limitations by asking respondents or their proxies about their ability, difficulty, or need for assistance in taking care of themselves. But no two surveys ask about the limitations in precisely the same way.
The federally-funded NHATS, a longitudinal survey first fielded inwas specifically designed to document how functioning in daily life changes with age Freedman et al.
Not surprisingly, in all three countries, those with at least one parent age 75 or older are far more likely than those with parents ages 65 to 74 to say their parents need help handling their affairs or caring for themselves. In the three countries surveyed, most of the assistance to aging parents who need help comes from family members.
Relatively few in Italy and the U. Helping Aging Parents with Errands, Finances and Personal Care Regardless of whether their parents need help handling their affairs or caring for themselves, most adults say they have helped their parents with errands, housework or home repairs. Fewer people say they have helped their parents financially or have provided personal care, such as bathing or getting dressed, in the previous 12 months.
A previous Pew Research survey showed a similar pattern with adults in lower-income households giving financial support to aging parents at higher rates than adults in higher-income households. There are no significant differences across income groups in Italy and Germany. Many people who have provided financial help to aging parents in the preceding 12 months say the help was for special circumstances rather than for recurring expenses.