For example, if teachers focus on teaching “big ideas” but the related The systemic and dynamic relationship among the four elements also means that changes .. The class develops a rubric that will be applied to a unit examination essay. A Reflection on Curriculum Development, Instruction and Design Essay In this Exploration of Instructional Designs, I will define and provide examples of each. curriculum, instruction, professional development, and assessment—that would be . For example, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (No Child Left Behind Act) .. The NRC report Taking Science to School  concluded that proficiency in science is . TABLE Relationship of Strands and Dimensions .
Validity addresses what a test is measuring and what meaning can be drawn from the test scores and the actions that follow Cronbach, It should be clear that what is being validated is not the test itself, but each inference drawn from the test score for each specific use to which the test results are put. Thus, for each purpose for which the scores are used, there must be evidence to support the appropriateness of inferences that are drawn. Fairness implies that a test supports the same inferences from person to person and group to group.
Thus the test results neither overestimate nor underestimate the knowledge and skills of members of a particular group, for example, females. Fairness also implies that the test measures the same construct across groups.
Based on a model of cognition and learning that is derived from the best available understanding of how students represent knowledge and develop competence in a domain.
Designed in accordance with accepted practices that include a detailed consideration of the reliability, validity, and fairness of the inferences that will be drawn from the test results see Box This is especially important when the assessment carries high stakes for students, teachers, or schools.
Aligned with curriculum and instruction that provide the factual content, concepts, processes, and skills the assessment is intended to measure so the three do not work at cross-purposes. Designed to include important content and process dimensions of performance in a discipline and to elicit the full range of desired complex cognition, including metacognitive strategies.
Multifaceted and continuous when used to assist learning by providing multiple opportunities for students to practice their skills and receive feedback about their performance.
Designed to assess understanding that is both qualitative and quantitative in nature and to provide multiple modalities with which a student can demonstrate learning. Of primary importance if a test is to support learning is that students be given timely and frequent feedback about the correctness of their understandings; in fact, providing such feedback is one of the most important roles for assessment.
Writing curriculum - Aims, goals, objectives
There is a large body of literature on how classroom assessment can be designed and used to improve learning and instruction see for example, Falk ; Shepard ; Wiggins, ; Niyogi, Concept maps, such as those discussed in Box in Chapter 6are one example of an assessment strategy that can be used to provide timely Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: End-of-course tests are too broad and too infrequently administered to provide information that can be used by teachers or students to inform decisions about teaching or learning on a day-to-day basis.
Thus, the content of the tests should be matched to challenging learning goals and subject matter standards and serve to illustrate what it means to know and learn in each of the disciplines. Because advanced study programs in the United States are strongly influenced by high-stakes assessment, the committee is especially concerned with how this form of assessment can be structured to facilitate learning with understanding.
It is well known that such assessments, even coming after the end of instruction, inevitably have strong anticipatory effects on instruction and learning.
Thus if high-stakes assessments fail to elicit complex cognition and other important learning outcomes, such as conceptual understanding and problem solving, they may have negative effects on the teaching and learning that precede them.
In designing such assessments, then, both psychometric qualities and learning outcomes should be considered. If end-of-course tests are to measure important aspects of domain proficiency, test makers need to have a sophisticated understanding of the target domain.
They must understand the content and the process dimensions that are valued in the discipline and then design the test to sample among a broad range of these dimensions Millman and Greene, Doing so is complicated, however, by the fact that an assessment can only sample from a large universe of desirable learning outcomes and thus can tap but a partial range of desirable cognitions.
However, currently, most objectives are written in behavioral terms.
The examples to the right are meant to be a bit silly intentionally as to help my students remember them. Of course I would not do this in a classroom, although I am sure students would think it rather fun! Objectives can be written in a number of ways. Currently, most objectives are written in behavioral terms.
Behavioral objectives usually employ observable verbiage and can be divided into specific domains — cognitive headaffective heartand physical hand.
Students will identify and list 5 slang terms they have heard from their peers.
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Student will choose 3 of the most offensive slang terms from a list developed by the entire class. Students will create expressive gestures to go with their favorite slang terms. When viewing this PPT please note that instruction was set up so that all three domains were represented. This is an example how instruction can be set up so that it is more holistic.