THE MOGUL MINUTE - THE MOGUL GIRL - THE MOGUL MINUTE
"Dave Patten signs to Meek Mill's Dreamchasers and releases "The Introduction"" . His girlfriend Emma, an NYPD officer (Cobie Smulders) is pregnant with his child. . musical adventure comedy film and a parody of the Robin Hood story. Rock artists aren't expected to hold their tongue, and if history is any When Kid Rock started dating Motley Crue drummer Tommy Lee's ex-wife . partner David Furnish said it detracted from the awards' credibility. . he was being mocked and ripped off by FNM's singer Mike Patton; .. meek-mill-trauma. Schools - Robert Peal is a history teacher and education research fellow at the you to David Green for guiding me through the project, the relationship between written letters and sounds, and Margaret Meek by a colleague at the local Educational Patten to once again 'get tough' with schools.
The amounts of revenue levied and collected during the first four years of the county's existence, commencing with the yearare as follows: The first post office was that established in Pontiac, inand Cornelius W. Reynolds was the first Postmaster. Newman was the first Route Agent. He traveled on horseback from Ottawa to Bloomington, by way of Pontiac and Lexington, and made a trip in two weeks.
The second Court House was erected under the county judgeship of Billings P. Babcock, and was as good a building as could be erected at that time for the money expended.
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Judge Babcock gave the same particular care to every item of its material and construction that he displays in his own financial affairs. The previous year, Judge Henry Jones erected, at Pontiac, the first brick building ever erected in the county.
The brick of which it was composed were purchased at Bloomington and hauled to Pontiac; and, in stipulating with the contractors, Judge Babcock required the brick to he of as good quality as the material used in the building of this house.
This opened up a new industry, and the first bricks were made during the same year. The building was two stories high, having offices for the Circuit Clerk, County Clerk, Sheriff and Treasurer on the first floor, and the court room and jury room on the second floor.
Ina fire-proof vault, in an added wing, was completed. On the 4th day of July,this building was destroyed by fire, together with Union Block and the Phoenix Hotel. This structure is one of the finest in the State. The names of these gentlemen were James E. The first jail was built at Pontiac in The first county election was at the residence of Andrew McMillan, a mile northwest from Rudd's Mill, on the north bank of the Vermilion The first County Commissioners and the first Sheriff performed the duties of their offices without any authority from the State, and, as they are all dead, the manner in which they obtained any authority to act will, perhaps, remain a mystery.
The ancient archives of the county contain no certificate of election or other evidence that they held their offices by virtue of either election or appointment. The records of the Secretary of State, have also been ransacked to discover, if possible, a clue to the matter; but nothing appears to indicate that either these or any other officers, previous towere legally qualified to act.
In this year, Nicholas Hefner was duly elected and qualified to act as Sheriff. The first marriage license issued in the county was made out by H. Williamson Spence and Miss Mary Darnall to solemnize a marriage; but so far as the record goes, it only authorized the marriage of Williamson to Miss Mary Darnall; so that, so far as the record has anything to do with the matter, The descendants of Spence are all Williamsons.
It is not improbable that this clerk - H. Since that period, 6, marriages have been authorized by the various County Clerks. Ladd came to Pontiac from Connecticut in October, Only two houses remain in Pontiac, which had been erected previous to his coming.
One of these, is the old Court House, and the other is the building now occupied by Samuel Mossholder as a dwelling. Young was the first man to erect a house on the site of the city of Pontiac. He died at this place, as also did his brother, Lucius Young. They were interested with Henry Weed in securing the location of the county seat at this point, and after their death, C. Perry, Henry Stephens, Samuel C. Ladd and some others became interested C. Perry brought the first stock of goods to the county, but before lie was established in business, S.
Ladd bought him out. About this time, Mr. Ladd entered into partnership with Willet Gray, and they purchased James McKee's interest in the mill. Their store stood on the banks of the river near where Robert Aerl's feed yard now is. Ladd Soon after erected a frame business building on the present site of Gunsul's livery stable; and for several years, he and Gray, were the only resident merchants of the county.
These merchants secured the services of John A. Fellows as salesman, and he was so popular that it was said of him that "he drew all the trade of the Vermilion Valley, and would have drawn more if the valley had been longer. Perry was then the capitalist. He brought to the place the first piano, the first "store carpet" and the first looking glass.
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His residence was a log cabin, and it used to be told how a horse once walked in at the open door, and stood surveying himself in Perry's looking glass, while he fought flies with his natural protector. The piano remained the only musical instrument of its kind in the county until Perry removed to Iowa and took it with him, and it was many years before its place was filled.
Ladd was, at once, an able and popular man. His father enlisted in the war of but was prevented from serving by sickness. Young Pope, then but 15 years of age, begged permission to go as his father's substitute, and, permission being given, he shouldered his musket and served during the war. When peace was restored, he resided with his father untilwhen he was married and came to this State, and located upon the identical piece of ground upon which he has ever since resided.
His house, a double log cabin, erected forty-three years ago, still serves him for a residence; and, with the exception of repairs to the roof, it has remained without alteration from the date of its erection to the present time. The only tools used in its construction were an axe, a saw and an auger. The flooring and ceiling were hewn out; and the chimney was built of stone taken from the stream near by.
Pope's Spring, from which hundreds of red men have slaked their thirst, furnishes the family with an abundant supply of excellent water. For a number of years after his arrival, his family, together with the families of Daniel Barrackman, Samuel Brumfield and Amos Lundy constituted the entire community. Their market was Chicago. On the route, the company camped where night overtook them, and they never slept under a roof from the time of their departure to the time of their return.
Pope was intimately acquainted with old Shabbona, the Pattawatomie chief, and holds his memory in great respect, and says that no white man was more welcome at his cabin than this Indian. This kindly feeling was doubtless reciprocated on the part of the red man, for he frequently pitched his tent near Pope's cabin, on his hunting excursions along the banks of the Vermilion.
Wild turkeys and deer abounded, and when Chief Shabbona was successful in the chase, the spoils were generously divided with his white friend; and his coming was looked forward to with pleasant anticipations of a good time, and his departure was regretted. On one of these occasions, Shabbona and the twelve Indian hunters who accompanied him, killed fifty deer, within a circuit of three miles, taking Pope's cabin as a center.
This speaks volumes for Shabbona, as the whites at this time were not disposed to regard the Indians with a favorable eye. Pope is still a hale and active old man. His early friends and neighbors have long since passed away, while he remains, a link connecting the present with the past.
He is cheerful, hopeful and perfectly contented with his lot. Pope is much respected in his neighborhood. Newman of Newtown, justly claims to be the pioneer merchant of the county.
He was born in Vermilion County inand removed to Ottawa in In the yearhe made a tour of discovery through Livingston County and found that there was not a store of any kind within its borders. He returned to Ottawa and fitted up a peddling wagon, filling it with a great variety of merchandise, from a needle to a wash tub, and, with this traveling establishment, he visited every family in the county, once in every month of the year.
In exchange for his goods, he took from his customers deer-skins, mink-skins, ginseng root, feathers and many other articles. He was a great favorite, and soon built up an extensive and lucrative business. When he was on his rounds, couriers would be sent out to ascertain when he would be at a particular point, so that the products of the country might be gathered in readiness for exchange.
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In the Fall ofhe purchased of John and Theodore Popejoy the skins of fifty-four deer, which they had killed in Avoca Township. In July of the same year, Joseph C. Morrison, who has before been mentioned, and who was the young man of the period and the leader of fashion, gave Newman an order to bring him, from Ottawa, a full suit of real linen clothes.
It was strictly stipulated that the clothes should be delivered by the 3d, as there was to be a grand ball in Avoca on the 4th, and the dress suit was ordered for that occasion.
Newman made the trip, executed the commission, and duly arrived in Pontiac on the 3d. Morrison was so well pleased with the fit and the price that he gave Newman an invitation to the ball; and his attendance was most opportune, for the violinist hired for the occasion got tired, and Newman had to fill his place, which he did, to the satisfaction of all parties. There is much that might be added concerning many others who helped to develop this great county, which is necessarily omitted.Meek Mill "How Good" Dave Patten - OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO
There was Nelson Buck, who loved his profession as he did his life; and Jacob Streamer, who has long been a resident, and is well known throughout the county. He has collected all local statistics and incidents sufficient to fill a volume.
This started him in business, and he is now one of the wealthy men of the county. The mention of Morgan L. Payne must not be omitted, as he was an old and well known resident. He was Captain of a company in the Black Hawk war, and performed distinguished service. He was a Texas Ranger when the war between Mexico and this Government was declared, and was in the first battle under Gen. Taylor, on the Rio Grande.
He was at the taking of Monterey, and the battle of the City of Mexico. He received an honorable discharge, and afterward filled many positions of public trust. When the war of the Rebellion was inaugurated, he raised a company of men in this county, was again elected and commissioned Captain, and served his country faithfully.
This hero of three wars died at Pontiac, of cancer, in He was a man of fiery and impetuous energy that overcame all obstacles with which he came in contact. He had many warm personal friends, who cherish his memory. Isaac Wilson, who is still living, is distinguished as one of the litigants in the first law suit in the Circuit Court. William Strawn, who resides at Odell was a personal friend of Old John Brown, whose "soul goes marching on.
He was one of the charter members of the "underground railroad" through Livingston County, over which many a negro traveled on his way to Canada. Pontiac has grown to be a beautiful city of near four thousand inhabitants. A few of her old stagers still remain, but, in the course of nature, they must soon pass away.
Their view of the present situation is best expressed by the following: A good many strangers are coming here now. As I told Eli Davis to-day; New forms and new faces will make us think how We old ones are passing away. The town is improving, and growing so fast Old landmarks are fading from view, And whichever way my glances I cast, My old eyes can see something new. The churches, six of them, with carpets and pews, With paid preachers to manage the works!
Elder Stubbles, in them days, preached the glad news 'Till he gave the people the "Jerks. With basement - it cuts such a swell; As I think of the days forever passed by, When Willet Gray kept a hotel. And the Post Office, too, is wonderful now. With drawers and lock boxes and that; Why, I can remember distinctly just how Jerome carried the thing in his hat. And them Indian signs where they sell the cigars, Lord!
And fancy saloons, with wine, rum and gin, And little back rooms all so snug; Why, once we were glad to take our whisky in From the neck of a little brown jug. And croquet and billiards and such games as these Have banished the old games from sight; Then, on boxes and kegs, we sat at our ease And played good old poker all night.
The fifth verse of the above requires the following explanation: He was extremely fond of fishing; and when any one was desirous of mailing a letter or expecting to receive one, it was necessary to seek for Jerome up or down the Vermilion until he was found, when he would take off his hat, perform his official duties, and then return it to his head. A Methodist bell, its voice rang out With a martial ring and a joyous shout. As high it hung in the belfry there, Calling the people to sermon and prayer.
Till the church grew small for the growing throng, Who came at the call of its bold, "ding dong.
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- History of Livingston County, Illinois.
Then sold to the county - a bell for the people. It rang for joy, when the first glad ray In the east proclaimed our Natal Day. It shrieked aloud when the fire fiend came.
And called the people to fight the flame. Solemn and slow was its measured toll, As it rang the knell of the parting soul. Slow and solemn its measured beat, When funeral pall and marching feet Went by with the dead, and the last farewell Was heard from the throat of the sobbing bell. And the tones that came from the quivering bell Were the tones of its own funeral knell.
For Union Block, our city's pride, Was bathed in a fiercely rolling tide Of lurid, hungry flames, that clasped The city's heart within its grasp; And a fiend that lay in the doomed hotel. Glared hot and fierce on the Court House bell. With a tiger's spring and a tongue of flame, Across the chasm the fire fiend came.
On the Court House roof, with fiery claws, He sprang as the springing lion draws His prey to the earth, then clasped the bell, To his fiery breast, till it, tottering, fell To the earth below, with burning beam.
And blazing rafter, till a stream Of molten metal came out to tell The end of the Pontiac Court House bell. A preliminary meeting was called at the fair ground early in the Fall of the year, at which C. Ostrander presided, and John A. Fellows was appointed Secretary. On the day appointed, the old settlers turned out en masse.
Tables, capable of seating fifteen hundred people, had been prepared by the citizens of Pontiac, these were all filled. An address of welcome was delivered by Nathaniel J. Letters were read from Judge Treat, who held the first term of court in Pontiac, and from Hon. David Davis and Jesse W. One hundred years ago to-day, The British troops in Boston lay. Our sires then hardly thought that they Would found a Nation Whose ships would whiten many seas, Whose flag should float on every breeze, Whose armies could maintain with ease Her lofty station.
And in that hundred years ago, The deer, the wolf, the buffalo, At will went roaming to and fro Where now our county Spreads out one vast and fertile plain Of golden corn and waving grain, Rejoicing 'neath a constant rain Of Heaven's bounty.
Yea, men now sitting in this hall In mem'ry can the time recall When nature brooded over all; When was unbroken The solitude that wrapped the land Where now our smiling cities stand, When silence reigned on every hand, And gave no token, Save by the hooting of the owl, The clangor of the water fowl, The red deer's signal or the howl Of gray wolf, weary In searching for his scanty food.
Save where, perhaps, some cabin rude Seemed on the lonely scene to brood, And served to point the solitude So lone and dreary. How Chief Shabbona and his band Kindled their camp fires on the strand Of fair Vermilion, when the land Stood robed by virgin Nature's hand In pristine glory.
Peace to thy shade; Shabbona, rest; A warm, true heart beat in thy breast: The white man's friend you stood confessed, Among the bravest, truest, best, Of those we mention. Thy name deserves a worthy place, Brave chieftain of a warlike race, Hist'ry accords thee little space; I would more worthy pen could trace, Thy fame, and, with befitting grace. What grandeur looming Is this through which Vermilion flows From early morn to evening's close: Through towns and farms the trav'ler goes Where fifty thousand souls repose; The desert blossoms like the Rose Of Sharon blooming.
Ye pioneers, it is to you The debt of gratitude is due; Ye builded wiser than ye knew The broad foundation On which our superstructure stands; Your strong right arms and willing hands, Four earnest effort still commands Our veneration!
And you, who yet upon the shore Of Time remain, strike hands once more, To-day recount your trials o'er. Repeat to us, from out your store, The legions and the early lore. Repeating The name of Rummery, he who found That famous railroad under ground. We point to you, old friends, and say The heat and burden of the day You bore, and in an earnest way We meet you. Well pleased, indeed, to see you stand, On this glad day, a gallant band, Whose hands have wrought, whose brains have planned Such vast improvement in the land; With beating heart and open hand, We greet you!
After these exercises, various old settlers made short addresses. The second meeting was held on the fair grounds in September, The third meeting was held at Fairbury, September 4, The meeting was called to order by the President.
James McDowell, and Dr. Fraley delivered an address of welcome. McDow- ell delivered a historical address, and letters from various distinguished persons, who visited the county in an early day, were read. The officers elected for the following year, were: The village of Cornell was chosen for its next point of meeting.
The first religious organizations and buildings were, of course, as in all our new countries, by that glorious band of pious pioneer preachers, the Methodists. There is something so natural in their doctrines and so artless in their way of advancing them, that the history must be blind to one of the brightest lights which fails to give these plain privates their proper place in its pages.
From here and there in the log school houses, where earnest worshipers alternately wept, sung and clapped their hands, have grown the full fruition of all those early hopes and prayers. The churches at present organized within the county are: The underlying factors of social inequality include inadequate financial or educational opportunities and a lack of a positive social support network, which are in turn due to a wide range of structural factors, including homophobia, violence, sexism, and racism Harrell et al.
These negative building blocks constitute the social inequalities that increase the incidence and prevalence of illnesses and form the foundation of structural violence Mendenhall In the United States, the prevalence rate of depression is two times higher in individuals with diabetes than in individuals without diabetes Asamsama et al. Separate studies have found that mortality rates for some inpatients with both diabetes and depression has been estimated at 47 percent, compared with 14 percent in outpatients with neither disease, 23 percent in patients with diabetes only, and 22 percent in patients with depression only Herrera ; Park, Katon, and Wolf Untreated depression contributes to decreased diabetes self-care and participation in health care through behavioral pathways, including poor diet, decreased glucose monitoring, missed medical appointments, limited exercise, and increased likelihood of diabetes complications through inadequate diabetes management Cabassa et al.
Conversely, diabetes contributes to depression by impacting deteriorating social networks, draining financial resources, and requiring considerable lifestyle changes, such as taking daily medications and making significant diet changes Egede and Ellis ; Katon, Maj, and Sartorius The severity and ensuing health complications of depression and diabetes, treatment resistance, increased morbidity and mortality, and the cost to both the individual and society are all magnified when the illnesses coexist Disdier-Flores ; Weaver and Hadley For example, food is a cohesive force: When an individual cannot partake due to diabetes-related dietary limitations, the ensuing sense of otherness may provoke a reluctance to socialize, adding to a sense of social isolation.
In my research among Puerto Rican women with diabetes who had to prepare diabetes-friendly meals for themselves and separate meals for the rest of their families, I found that they were twice as likely as women without diabetes to suffer from depression due to the loneliness associated with eating separate meals Lerman Depression shares several symptoms with diabetes Lerman ; Mendenhall ; Held et al.
For example, short sleep duration under seven continuous hours per night contributes to the development of diabetes Knutson et al. During the slow-wave sleep process, metabolic changes contribute to glycemic homeostasis so that insufficient sleep leads to increased glucose levels and decreased insulin levels Knutson et al. Since restless sleep is both a symptom and side effect of chronic depression Pouwer, Nefs, and Nouwen ; Park, Katon, and Wolfdecreased sleep is one mechanism by which depression may increase the risk of diabetes Pouwer, Nefs, and Nouwen Additionally, depression activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis, which, in turn, triggers a series of neuroendocrine alterations that contributes to increased fat metabolism and insulin resistance and increases production of cortisol in the adrenal cortex; increased cortisol production in turn contributes to decreased cellular sensitivity to insulin and glucose absorption, although the exact pathways are still under investigation Alonso-Magdalena, Quesada, and Nadal ; Chiodini et al.
There has also been inconclusive research on the effect of antidepressants on glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. Some studies have found that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIsthe most common class of antidepressants, increase the risk for diabetes Khoza et al. Poor metabolic control has also been proven to reduce the positive reaction to antidepressants Katon, Maj, and Sartorius Conversely, some research indicates that treating depression with SSRIs has not been shown to increase glycemic levels Deuschle ; Egede and Ellis This has considerable implications for therapies for individuals with both diabetes and depression.
On the structural level, depression and diabetes are both associated with high crime rates, economic instability, and political inaction Galea et al. Likewise, Emily Mendenhall has identified a diabetes-depression syndemic among low-income groups in India, which she attributes to rural-urban migration, altered social networks and value systems, and gender-based violence, combined with shifts in the source, quantity, and quality of food and physical activity.
Political inaction in the face of skyrocketing prices for healthy food, unemployment, and civil unrest e. With increasing unemployment and poverty rates, healthy food becomes unaffordable, contributing to the overconsumption of cheap, unhealthy food and to living in unsafe neighborhoods Dhokarh et al.
The combination of unemployment, poverty-derived depression, and the overconsumption of nutrient-deficient foods triggers the overproduction of cortisol, which increases the risk of developing diabetes Nawaz, Mane, and Ramakrishna ; Park, Katon, and Wolf ; Pouwer, Nefs, and Nouwen Economic and occupational instability, ensuing family frictions, and the challenges associated with adapting to life with diabetes have also contributed to increased risk for developing depression.
Depression and obesity Depression has a syndemic relationship with obesity Brewis ; Lerman ; Trainer et al. Obesity, a condition characterized by excessive adipose fat tissue, has more than doubled worldwide sinceaffecting more than six hundred million adults in World Health Organization Obesity increases the incidence risk of type 2 diabetes, depression, stroke, cardiovascular disease, asthma, sleep apnea, and several types of cancer Low, Chin, and Deurenberg-Yap ; Hossain, Kawar, and El Nahas Obesity is due to complex interactions among several factors, with more than six hundred genes, socioeconomic status, supermarket placement within neighborhoods, neighborhood safety, and the economic inaccessibility of fruits and vegetables all contributing to obesity Brewis ; Ulijaszek and Lofink ; Lerman Individuals with obesity are twenty to fifty times more likely than individuals without obesity to suffer from an episode of depression lasting for more than a year and are five times more likely to gain weight than are individuals without depression Brewis ; Lerman ; Murphy et al.
The social stigma of obesity often contributes to the depression of individuals with obesity and to the chronic psychological and physical depression stemming from obesity Lerman ; Puhl and Heuer ; Trainer et al.
For example, John Luque and colleagues found that Latinas reported depression as a risk factor for obesity due to the misconception of fat bodies as lazy bodies, and they emphasized the role of family involvement in successfully losing weight.
Sarah Trainer and colleagues found that the structural stigma of obesity, such as being unable to fit into airplane seats or restaurant booths, and the interpersonal stigma of obesity, such as being passed over for promotions at work, both contributed to increased rates of depression among people with obesity and were motivating factors for people seeking bariatric surgery.
With depression already a stigmatized condition, individuals struggling with obesity are also much less likely to access health care than are individuals with just obesity or depression, out of fear of being stigmatized not only by passersby but also by health care providers Barney et al. The stress of obesity stigma has been shown to increase levels of cortisol, a hormone whose production increases with stress and is associated with deleterious health outcomes such as type 2 diabetes Himmelstein et al.
For example, higher cortisol levels increase levels of insulin and drop blood sugar levels, which makes individuals crave high-sugar, high-fat foods Lerman These sugary, fatty foods are also frequent comfort foods, which are commonly consumed under the perpetual stress stemming from poverty and unemployment Greenhalgh ; Mankekar and which contribute to increased consumption and subsequent risk for obesity Lerman In addition to cortisol, leptin, an adipose-produced hormone that controls fat distribution and food intake, is a key physiological indicator of obesity; despite elevated levels of the hormone due to increased amounts of adipose particularly above the obesity thresholdincreased leptin resistance contributes to difficulty recognizing satiety Bornstein et al.
Conversely, decreased leptin levels have been found in people suffering from depression, particularly as leptin has been found to secrete antidepressant effects via enhanced neuroplasticity in the amygdala and the hippocampus, brain regions associated with happiness and well-being Bornstein et al. Keiko Asao and colleagues found that people who lived in poverty and were more likely to skip breakfast due to having depression were at increased risk of lower leptin levels than were people who did not have depression.
Since leptin is produced in white adipose tissue, if the amounts of white adipose tissue are reduced too quickly via skipped meals, the ensuing decreased leptin levels can, in turn, contribute to increased risk of depression Rigamonti et al. Leptin also regulates the HPA axis Bornstein et al. As discussed in the section on depression and diabetes, prolonged stress due to HPA axis overstimulation also increases the vulnerability to diabetes Bornstein et al. Depression and obesity share several symptoms, such as sedentary behavior and irregular sleeping and eating patterns Gong et al.
Sweet, high-carbohydrate, high-fat foods trigger the production of serotonin, a hormone responsible for both elevated mood and suppressed appetite, by allowing the production of tryptophan, the building block of serotonin, at the expense of other hormones competing for access to the brain Gibson ; Spring et al.
Food also holds emotional meaning: While individuals with depression may gain psychopharmacological advantages by consuming food that triggers the production of serotonin, those same foods also contain a lot of fat and cause substantial weight gain if consumed in large quantities, contributing to the development of obesity Wurtman and Wurtman There is some research implying that obesity is a side effect of antidepressants, particularly SSRIs, although the exact pathophysiology remains unclear Lerman ; Patten et al.
In my own research, I found that due to the medical brain drain from Puerto Rico to the US mainland due, in turn, to the ongoing economic crisisoverworked and underfunded health care providers regularly prescribed high dosages of antidepressants to their patients in order to avoid repeat patient visits and to make room for more patients, and thus more insurance payments Lerman This research has strong implications for medication adherence, due to the pre-existing stigma surrounding both depression and obesity; individuals with depression may not wish to add to their suffering by taking a medication that would cause them to develop another stigmatized condition.
However, the exact cause-and-effect biological relationship of obesity and depression has yet to be explained in full; it is uncertain whether depression as an illness is present prior to the individual developing obesity or vice versa Heo et al.
But whether or not depression has a direct effect on obesity or vice versa, both depression and obesity as diseases are serious health concerns, and obesity leads to a plethora of other diseases, and as such the relationship of depression and obesity should be further examined.
Specifically, poverty and limited access to education and healthy foods are major contributors to obesity incidence and prevalence, furthermore emphasizing the association between obesity and depression Aguirre ; Bellisari ; Brewis ; Greenhalgh ; Lerman ; McCullough and Hardin For example, in Puerto Rico people are charged exorbitant prices for fresh fruits and vegetables due to the Jones Act, which enforces a US monopoly on the shipment of fresh produce to the island and which makes it difficult for Puerto Ricans to consistently afford healthy foods Lerman Trauma, neglect, and stress, particularly from living in poverty or violent neighborhoods, are precursors to developing obesity later in life Moore and Pi-Sunyer ; Schavey, Puhl, and Brownell As discussed earlier, depression acts upon the HPA axis by increasing the production of the hormone cortisol, which in addition to increasing insulin resistance also favors storage of abdominal fat Gluck et al.
However, the mechanisms by which cortisol acts on abdominal fat are not yet fully understood Dockray, Susman, and Dorn ; Gluck et al. As discussed earlier, the long-term consumption of fatty, sugary foods — particularly when spurred both by the desire to return to a happier mental state i. When socioeconomic survival is paramount, exercise and healthier, more expensive foods are not highly prioritized Flores et al.
Parents of families living below the poverty line frequently work more than one job in order to pay the bills, and do not have time or money to cook healthy meals Brewis ; Greenhalgh Children in low-income households often remain by themselves for long periods of time, watching television instead of playing outside, and are exposed to advertisements for unhealthy foods that are cheaper than healthier fruits and vegetables Greenhalgh Blair and colleagues found that children living in poverty had higher levels of cortisol than children not living in poverty, due to both the depression related to lack of essential resources and the jealousy associated with having less resources than other children.
Furthermore, consistently high levels of cortisol in childhood had adverse effects on brain development into adulthood, negatively affecting memory, attention, and emotion control, which in turn made it more difficult to find and keep a job Blair et al. Obesity is also a heavy economic burden due to the direct costs of treatment and prevention, the indirect costs of morbidity and mortality, and inconsistent insurance coverage of obesity Finkelstein et al.
This additional economic drain of obesity on people already living in poverty both increases the risk of depression and contributes to the cycle from which individuals with obesity and depression are unable to disengage. The exorbitant costs associated with obesity both exacerbate depression among individuals with obesity who live in poverty Greenhalgh ; Heo et al.
Among individuals with major depressive disorder, the prevalence of substance abuse ranges from 8. Substance abuse increases the likelihood of participating in risky sexual behaviors, such as trading sex for drugs or having unprotected sex with a potentially infected partner National Institute on Drug Abuse Cocaine, alcohol, and methamphetamine meth also affect brain viral loads Arnsten et al.
Whether decreased levels of dopamine receptors are a pre-existing condition or a result of drug abuse is unclear, but this finding suggests a biological foundation for both the increased prevalence of depression and for the worsening of HIV and AIDS among substance abusers.
Relying too much on meth to treat ADHD can both cause an addiction to meth and increase the likelihood of developing depression. Depression frequently serves as both as a stimulus for and a result of substance abuse Illangasekare et al. For example, alcohol is both a common source of temporary relief for people suffering from depression, and a depressant that causes symptoms similar to depression, such as fatigue Senn, Carey, and Vanable Overconsumption of alcohol also increases the likelihood of broken relationships, impulsive decision making, and unemployment, all of which contribute to the development of depression Senn, Carey, and Vanable Some research suggests that substance abuse and depression are both correlated with the genotype and allele frequencies of the receptor h5-HTR 1B GC Huang et al.
Other studies suggest that low levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid 5-HIAAa major metabolite of serotonin, are related to both increased depression and early-onset alcoholism Atigari et al. This finding has strong implications for the use of SSRIs both as antidepressants and to combat early-onset alcoholism; again, more research is needed.
Lawrence and colleagues found that among women receiving social welfare benefits, those who report domestic abuse also experience elevated rates of depression and substance abuse compared to women who do not report domestic abuse. In their extensive meta-analysis of studies on substance abuse, violence, and HIV, Meyer and colleagues found that substance abuse accounted for 20—25 percent of variance in high-risk sex, especially among single women, and that women who had experienced physical or sexual abuse were more likely to be substance abusers.
Meyer and colleagues also found that depression was a frequently concurrent issue for individuals who had experienced domestic violence, and that depression was often the underlying motivation to self-medicate with alcohol and drugs among individuals who had been abused. Parsons and colleagues corroborated this result in their research on gay and bisexual men, finding that study participants often turned to illicit drugs to alleviate their depression and stigmatization as sexual minorities.
Illangasekare and colleagues also corroborated this, finding that their study participants reported experiencing depression whenever they came down from a drug-induced high, and would then take more drugs to avoid experiencing depression again. There is a strong association between poverty and substance abuse Gideonse ; Marcus and Singer ; Valdez, Kaplan, and Curtis Poverty is a major contributor to depression Mendenhall ; Singer ; Weaver and Mendenhallwhich is associated with elevated rates of violence, crime, and unemployment, which in turn perpetuate poverty and substance abuse rates Singer and Ziegler ; Valdez, Kaplan, and Curtis Mojtabai and colleagues found that among their study participants, the cost of care was the single biggest barrier to treatment for both individuals with depression and with substance abuse.
The high prevalence of depression among individuals with HIV and AIDS is due to several reasons, including stigma, deteriorating cognitive and physical function, and social isolation Pfeiffer et al. Depression and HIV share several symptoms, such as lack of energy and weight loss National Institute of Mental Healthwhich can make it difficult to detect depression in individuals with HIV. Stigma-induced structural factors underlying HIV and AIDS, such as blocked funding for needle-exchange programs and classes on safe sex, criminalizing consensual sex between two adults of the same sex, and denied housing, also contribute to increased incidence and prevalence rates of depression among individuals with HIV and AIDS among people living on the streets Gurung et al.
HIV and AIDS stigma are also common in schools and the workplace, leading to diminished intellectual and practical skills which, in turn, lead to difficulties obtaining permanent employment, which worsens depression outcomes Gideonse For example, African Americans carry the greatest burden of HIV among all ethnic groups in the United States, accounting for 44 percent of new adult infections Centers for Disease Control and Prevention a.
HIV and AIDS are highly stigmatized and embedded in discrimination rooted in homophobia, racism, classism, and ignorance about disease transmission, which both increases the incidence and prevalence of depression and makes it exceedingly difficult for affected individuals to access care Bogart and Thorburn ; Stall et al.
For example, scholars show that systematic racism and homophobia among health care providers prevent gay, bisexual, and MSM African Americans from seeking treatment for HIV and AIDS, which contributes to elevated depression rates and increases their morbidity and mortality rates Benkert et al.
Experiencing racism also contributes to poorer depression outcomes and sexually risky behavior Illangasakere et al. Wilson and colleagues also found that Black and Hispanic men were more likely than White men to be imprisoned for minor drug offenses and to be at increased risk for engaging in unprotected sex.
Discussion In this article, I review several ways that depression interacts on both the structural and biological levels with other health conditions, indicating the presence of several syndemics and that depression is indeed an example of syndemogenesis.
In particular, they build on the work of Ostrach and colleagues and Singer and Ziegler ; and Bulled,in taking a critical look at the complex ways that depression serves as a case study of syndemogensis. This theoretical focus draws attention to the need for multilevel actions to address not only the separate structural and biological bases of depression, but also the intersections.
For example, the work by Mendenhall and myself Lerman on depression and diabetes emphasizes the need to look at the effects of broader political changes and oppressions on health outcomes, while Trainer and colleagues show how social stigma itself state-perpetuated of the obese body affect depression and vice versa.
These studies highlight the need not only for more research to better understand the syndemogenesic pathways of depression but also that more thorough interventions are needed to combat depression along the biological-structural pathways. The structural factors contributing to these conditions require intensive changes that will take time to fix: However, some changes, such as training health care providers to identify and address depression in their patients, are smaller and are a viable first step in preventing the incidence and prevalence of depression.
By doing so, syndemics that include depression may be mitigated or even eradicated. Given the role of structural and biological interactions in the perpetuation of syndemogenesis, the treatment of biological factors without social change is insufficient to prevent syndemogenesic interactions. Such changes might include the creation of new jobs and safe spaces, the development of social networks for vulnerable individuals to protect against domestic violence, the introduction of more paid sick and vacation days, as well as longer maternity leave, investments in early education, and reforms to the criminal justice system to reduce mass incarceration CDC ; Vallas and Boteach This research has implications for potential prevention and treatment.
Given the syndemogenic nature of depression, it would behoove providers to check patients for depressive symptomology during both regular checkups and specialty e. Treatment plans for diabetes, obesity, HIV and AIDS, and substance abuse should include plans for treating depression as a matter of course. Family members should be involved in treatment plans in order to offer support for loved ones with depression Illangasekare et al.
Broader preventive measures are also needed at the structural level. Safe spaces should be provided for people with these conditions to come together and share their experiences with people without the conditions to offset assumptions and misconceptions of these conditions.
The language used to discuss these conditions should be neutral and not derogatory, and fines should be imposed on institutions that fire or refuse to hire individuals with these conditions based on their disease status. In the United States, the federal government should invest in creating jobs by rebuilding infrastructures, renovating abandoned housing, providing subsidized housing, and passing the Paycheck Fairness Act to ensure that all individuals receive the same paycheck for the same work performed regardless of gender, ethnicity, gender or sexual identification, or religion.
Furthermore, the incarceration system should be overhauled. People with low-level offenses, such as possession or sales of small quantities of controlled substances, should receive counseling and rehabilitation instead of incarceration; this would also reduce the number of Blacks and Hispanics in the prison system, as many are jailed for minor offenses Stevens-Watkins et al.
Given the syndemogenic interconnectedness of depression both with other health conditions and injurious social conditions such as poverty, policies should focus on improving access to mental health care for vulnerable groups, such as people with HIV and AIDS.
As individuals living in poverty often lack the financial resources and employment opportunities to move out of poverty, which contributes to the deterioration of depressive symptoms Lund et al.
Individuals with depression should be included in decision-making processes regarding federal regulations for mental health treatments. Acknowledgements I would like to thank Dr. Merrill Singer and Dr. Bayla Ostrach for their advice during the writing process of this paper.
I wrote this article while a postdoctoral fellow with the Prevention and Control of Cancer: She is trained as a medical anthropologist; her research focuses on syndemics, mental health, diabetes, obesity, the Caribbean, Latinos, and health disparities. She recently coedited two volumes on stigma syndemics both published in with Dr.
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