Home economics / Related subjects / Home - Health & PE
in understanding the complexity of family resources and relation- ships. Purposes and Scope of Home Economics Education. Major areas of home economics. In home economics, students develop an understanding of the factors that influence the well-being of individuals and families within the home and community. People searching for home economics teacher found the following related articles Required Education, Bachelor's degree in consumer science or related field.
Over the course of the next 10 years, these educators worked tirelessly to elevate the discipline, which was to become home economics, to a legitimate profession. Richards wanted to call this oekology or the science of right living.
Euthenicsthe science of controllable environment, was also a name of her choice, but "home economics" was ultimately chosen as the official term in The Smith-Lever Act of and the Smith-Hughes Act of provided funding to expand demonstration work in rural communities and to develop and teach a home economics curriculum on the campuses of most state land-grant colleges.
Home economics emerged at the turn of the twentieth century as a movement to train women to be more efficient household managers. At the same moment, American families began to consume many more goods and services than they produced. To guide women in this transition, professional home economics had two major goals: The development of the profession progressed from its origins as an educational movement to its identity as a source of consumer expertise in the interwar period to its virtual disappearance by the s.
International organizations such as those associated with the United Nations have been involved in starting home economics programs around the world. However, this program was centered on the ideals that women should acquire practical skills but also a scientifically based understanding of how technology in the household works.
For example, women were required to disassemble and then reassemble kitchen machinery so they could understand basic operations as well as repair the equipment. In doing so, Iowa State effectively created culturally acceptable forms of physics and engineering for women in an era when these pursuits were not generally accessible to them. Home economists … found a receptive audience among many of its young female members who expressed interest in learning about how to improve their homes, spend their leisure time, and make decisions about what to buy, what to make at home, and even what books to read.
Indeed, efforts to reposition the discipline ultimately led to its renaming in the late twentieth century. Even as luxury consumption exerts a cultural pull for many, middle-class culture still celebrates consumers who make sensible, controlled choices in the marketplace, resisting pure pleasure, impulse purchases, and cheap or shoddy goods.
For example, women were graded on collaboration, while households at the time assumed that women would be working independently. These practicum courses took place in a variety of environments including single-family homes, apartments, and student dorm-style blocks.
For a duration of a number of weeks, students lived together while taking on different roles and responsibilities, such as cooking, cleaning, interior decoration, hosting, and budgeting. Some classes also involved caring for young infants, temporarily adopted from orphanages. Childcare practicums were often included at the same time as other classwork, requiring students to configure their intellectual and home lives as compatible with one another.
Each member of the team was able to live a life outside the home as well as inside the home, ideally, one that both informed her domestic work and was informed by it. Most of the evidence to date focuses on demographic associations of various forms of nutrition knowledge. Six studies suggest that women know more about nutrition than men Hendrie et al. The relationship of nutrition knowledge with age is more uncertain: Four studies have shown that duration of education is positively related to nutrition knowledge Hendrie et al.
There has been little examination of other areas of food knowledge though it might be expected that similar demographic trends might apply.
One recent study we conducted of Australians' basic knowledge of Australian agriculture revealed generally low levels of knowledge and few gender, educational differences, although knowledge did increase with age Worsley et al. If similar weak demographic associations are shown to apply to other areas of food knowledge, then it would be possible, for example, to focus communication efforts on demographic groups that have lower levels of knowledge.
The little amount of research into this question mirrors the generally low priority given to food education, despite the major physical, temporal and human resources expended in school education in health and related curricula. To date, we have identified only one report, from Ireland, which showed that home economics education was associated with higher food safety knowledge in adulthood McCarthy et al. Probably most people assume that school education imparts long-lasting knowledge, but does it do so when it comes to food knowledge?
A closely related question is: Do the different food-related curricula directed by different regional education authorities result in higher levels and different types of food knowledge among adults? The main aims of this article, therefore, are to investigate the last two questions above, specifically: The influences on various forms of food knowledge in adults, including likely demographic influences, as well as the possible influence of health or home economics education at school.
Based on the literature cited above, we expected that age, female gender, duration of education and the presence of children under 18 years of age in the household will be associated with higher levels of knowledge.
We also expected that health or home economics education would also be associated with greater levels of food knowledge since these are the main subjects in the school curriculum that communicate about food issues. Whether the different curricula taught in the States of Australia bring about different types and levels of knowledge in adults. The hospital dietitian may work in therapeutic dietetics, making up special diets in cooperation with the medical staff of the hospital.
The hospital dietitian may also conduct classes for patients who must become familiar with their special dietary needs and restrictions. Nutritionists are dietitians who teach people what they should eat in order to maintain good health see food and nutrition. Nutritionists may work with public health agencies or for food or pharmaceutical companies. Food service managers supervise large-volume feeding operations.
They might be employed by motels, hotels, or restaurant chains. They might also be in charge of school lunch programs or of food service for a branch or division of the armed forces.
The food service manager usually directs a staff of assistants and oversees food and equipment purchases and the taking of inventories. Home economists engaged in test-kitchen research may be responsible for developing new food products or improving existing ones. Home economists in test kitchens may also create and test recipes and provide information on food preparation.
Test kitchens are operated by magazines and newspapers, advertising and public relations agencies, companies that process foods, and agencies of the federal government. The clothing and textiles major with a fine arts background may find a career as a dress or fabric designer.
Clothing designers are usually employed by garment or pattern manufacturers; textile designers usually work for fabric mills. See also clothing industry ; garment industry. The clothing and textiles major with a background in economics or business organization might join the sales staff of a company that manufactures textiles, patterns, or sewing notions such as thread, zippers, trim, or yarn.
Other possibilities are positions in department or clothing stores, which would include those of buyer, merchandise manager, and fashion coordinator. The home economists who enter professions involving clothing, textiles, or fashion must have a background in textile chemistry, fashion history, pattern design, and other related subjects.
A sense of fashion and an aptitude for sales are also considered valuable assets. Housing The housing field, like the clothing and textile industries, has many opportunities for the home economist with a flair for design or business.
HHome Economics - Home Economics Education
Interior designers help clients furnish their homes and solve problems in the use of living space and furnishings. They also tell their clients what furnishings and accessories are available and which of these are good values.
An interior designer may be self-employed or may work for a firm that specializes in interior design or architecture. Interior designers are also employed by retail stores, furniture and drapery manufacturers, and trade associations. See also interior design. Some home economists become executive housekeepers. They manage such institutions as hospitals, hotels, and dormitories.
They are responsible for keeping such establishments clean, orderly, attractive, and safe. To do this, executive housekeepers direct a staff of assistants, prepare budgets and reports, and order and receive supplies. Home equipment specialists are often employed by public utilities or by the manufacturers of household appliances such as washing machines and clothes dryers. They work to acquaint the public with the products their company sells and to produce goodwill for the company.
In order to answer inquiries from people who use or are interested in buying household appliances, they need to know what equipment is available and how it is operated. The home equipment specialist is trained in household physics, food preparation, nutrition, quantity cooking, demonstration methods, kitchen design, and public speaking. A basic knowledge of advertising, salesmanship, business organization, and labor problems is also needed. Research Research is being conducted in all areas of home economics.
A home economist engaged in research may study, for example, variations in the texture, tenderness, and juiciness of a freeze-dried chicken or the effectiveness of fluorescent whiteners in a laundry detergent. Research home economists may work for colleges and universities, private companies, independent research and testing organizations, or government agencies. The United States Department of Agriculture employs research home economists with specialties in such fields as family economics, nutrition, and textiles.
Home economics research requires an ability to work with precision, thoroughness, and imagination. Most home economics researchers hold a doctoral degree. Welfare Work and Child Development Home economists of varying backgrounds may engage in social work or welfare work with agencies that offer aid to people who cannot adequately care for themselves. Such home economists may help social workers plan corrective measures when money management, diet, or housekeeping standards need to be improved.
They may also serve caseworkers by setting up standards and guidelines to help appraise various types of family problems. The child welfare worker deals with children who have problems—particularly children who need to be placed in homes away from their parents and children who have broken the law. The child welfare worker helps solve problems involving such children by reviewing family records, conducting interviews, visiting homes, and providing information.
Child development is another field associated with home economics. Child development jobs usually involve working with groups of children who attend day-care centers, nursery schools, community centers, Head Start programs, or kindergartens.
The duties of the preschool teacher may include reading stories, supervising play and creative expression periods, and serving lunch. Because preschools stress emotional and social adjustment rather than formal learning, the teacher needs to see that the children interact well. A background in child development or family relations is essential see child development.