The Famous Letter Where Freud Breaks His Relationship with Jung () | Open Culture
Over time, cracks in the relationship began to occur. Though Freud had viewed Jung as the most innovative of his many followers, he was unhappy with Jung's. Jung's relationship with Freud was ambivalent from the start. First contact was made in , when Jung wrote about his word association tests. In , the relationship between Jung and Freud was further crowned as Jung became Chairman for Life of the newly-established.
The following year this led to an irrevocable split between them and Jung went on to develop his own version of psychoanalytic theory. Most of Jung's assumptions of his analytical psychology reflect his theoretical differences with Freud. Differences between Jung and Freud Theory of the Libido Jung disagreed with Freud regarding the role of sexuality.
The Relationship Between Freud and Jung | WiredCosmos
He believed the libido was not just sexual energy, but instead generalized psychic energy. For Jung the purpose of psychic energy was to motivate the individual in a number of important ways, including spiritually, intellectually, and creatively. It was also an individual's motivational source for seeking pleasure and reducing conflict Theory of the Unconscious Like Freud and Erikson Jung regarded the psyche as made up of a number of separate but interacting systems.
The three main ones were the ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious. According to Jung, the ego represents the conscious mind as it comprises the thoughts, memories, and emotions a person is aware of. The ego is largely responsible for feelings of identity and continuity. Like Freud, Jungemphasized the importance of the unconscious in relation to personality.
However, he proposed that the unconscious consists of two layers. The personal unconscious contains temporality forgotten information and well as repressed memories. Jung outlined an important feature of the personal unconscious called complexes. A complex is a collection of thoughts, feelings, attitudes, and memories that focus on a single concept. The more elements attached to the complex, the greater its influence on the individual. Jung also believed that the personal unconscious was much nearer the surface than Freud suggested and Jungian therapy is less concerned with repressed childhood experiences.
It is the present and the future, which in his view was the key to both the analysis of neurosis and its treatment. This is his most original and controversial contribution to personality theory. This is a level of unconscious shared with other members of the human species comprising latent memories from our ancestral and evolutionary past. These universal predispositions stem from our ancestral past. Fear of the dark, or of snakes and spiders might be examples, and it is interesting that this idea has recently been revived in the theory of prepared conditioning.
However, more important than isolated tendencies are those aspects of the collective unconscious that have developed into separate sub-systems of the personality. Jung called these ancestral memories and images archetypes. Archetypes Archetypes Jung, are images and thoughts which have universal meanings across cultures which may show up I dreams, literature, art or religion.
Jung believes symbols from different cultures are often very similar because they have emerged from archetypes shared by the whole human race which are part of out collective unconscious.
For Jung, our primitive past becomes the basis of the human psyche, directing and influencing present behavior. Another primary disagreement with Freud stemmed from their differing concepts of the unconscious. According to Jung, Freud conceived the unconscious solely as a repository of repressed emotions and desires. Freud had actually mentioned a collective level of psychic functioning but saw it primarily as an appendix to the rest of the psyche.
While Jung spoke, Freud suddenly fainted and Jung carried him to a couch. Jung gave a talk on psychological types, the introverted and extraverted type in analytical psychology.
This constituted the introduction of some of the key concepts which came to distinguish Jung's work from Freud's in the next half century. Midlife isolation[ edit ] It was the publication of Jung's book Psychology of the Unconscious in that led to the break with Freud. Letters they exchanged show Freud's refusal to consider Jung's ideas. This rejection caused what Jung described in his posthumous autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, as a "resounding censure".
Everyone he knew dropped away except for two of his colleagues.
Carl Jung - Wikipedia
Jung described his book as "an attempt, only partially successful, to create a wider setting for medical psychology and to bring the whole of the psychic phenomena within its purview. London —14[ edit ] Jung spoke at meetings of the Psycho-Medical Society in London in and His travels were soon interrupted by the war, but his ideas continued to receive attention in England primarily through the efforts of Constance Long who translated and published the first English volume of his collected writings.
He saw visions and heard voices. He worried at times that he was "menaced by a psychosis" or was "doing a schizophrenia". He decided that it was valuable experience and, in private, he induced hallucinations or, in his words, " active imaginations ".
He recorded everything he felt in small journals. Jung began to transcribe his notes into a large red leather-bound book, on which he worked intermittently for sixteen years.
The Relationship Between Freud and Jung
Sonu Shamdasania historian of psychology from London, tried for three years to persuade Jung's resistant heirs to have it published. Up to mid-Septemberfewer than two dozen people had seen it. Ulrich Hoerni, Jung's grandson who manages the Jung archives, decided to publish it to raise the additional funds needed when the Philemon Foundation was founded. It was published on 7 Octoberin German with a "separate English translation along with Shamdasani's introduction and footnotes" at the back of the book, according to Sara Corbett for The New York Times.
She wrote, "The book is bombastic, baroque and like so much else about Carl Jung, a willful oddity, synched with an antediluvian and mystical reality.
There followed a decade of active publication, interspersed with overseas travels. England,[ edit ] Constance Long arranged for Jung to deliver a seminar in Cornwall in Another seminar was held inthis one organized by Helton Godwin Baynes known as Peterand another in United States —25, —37[ edit ] Jung made a more extensive trip westward in the winter of —5, financed and organized by Fowler McCormick and George Porter.
On the voyage to Africa, they became acquainted with an English woman named Ruth Bailey, who joined their safari a few weeks later. The group traveled through Kenya and Uganda to the slopes of Mount Elgonwhere Jung hoped to increase his understanding of "primitive psychology" through conversations with the culturally isolated residents of that area.
Later he concluded that the major insights he had gleaned had to do with himself and the European psychology in which he had been raised. In India, he felt himself "under the direct influence of a foreign culture" for the first time. In Africa, his conversations had been strictly limited by the language barrier, but in India he was able to converse extensively.
Hindu philosophy became an important element in his understanding of the role of symbolism and the life of the unconscious, though he avoided a meeting with Ramana Maharshi. He described Ramana as being absorbed in "the self", but admitted to not understanding Ramana's self-realization or what he actually did do. He also admitted that his field of psychology was not competent to understand the eastern insight of the Atman "the self". Jung became seriously ill on this trip and endured two weeks of delirium in a Calcutta hospital.
Afterhis travels were confined to Europe. A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skieswhich analyzed the archetypal meaning and possible psychological significance of the reported observations of UFOs. Jung's interest in philosophy and the occult led many to view him as a mystic, although his preference was to be seen as a man of science.
Jung's definitions of archetypes varied over time and have been the subject of debate as to their usefulness. Archetypal images — universal symbols that can mediate opposites in the psyche, often found in religious art, mythology and fairy tales across cultures Complex — the repressed organisation of images and experiences that governs perception and behaviour Extraversion and introversion — personality traits of degrees of openness or reserve contributing to psychological type.
Jung viewed it as the psyche's central archetype Individuation — the process of fulfilment of each individual "which negates neither the conscious or unconscious position but does justice to them both". Extraversion and introversion Jung was one of the first people to define introversion and extraversion in a psychological context. In Jung's Psychological Types, he theorizes that each person falls into one of two categories, the introvert and the extravert.
These two psychological types Jung compares to ancient archetypes, Apollo and Dionysus. The introvert is likened with Apollo, who shines light on understanding.
The introvert is focused on the internal world of reflection, dreaming and vision. Thoughtful and insightful, the introvert can sometimes be uninterested in joining the activities of others. The extravert is associated with Dionysus, interested in joining the activities of the world. The extravert is focused on the outside world of objects, sensory perception and action.
Energetic and lively, the extrovert may lose their sense of self in the intoxication of Dionysian pursuits. The persona, he argues, is a mask for the "collective psyche", a mask that 'pretends' individuality, so that both self and others believe in that identity, even if it is really no more than a well-played role through which the collective psyche is expressed.
Jung regarded the "persona-mask" as a complicated system which mediates between individual consciousness and the social community: Jung's theory has become enormously influential in management theory; not just because managers and executives have to create an appropriate "management persona" a corporate mask and a persuasive identity,  but also because they have to evaluate what sort of people the workers are, in order to manage them for example, using personality tests and peer reviews.
Based on his study of ChristianityHinduismBuddhismGnosticismTaoismand other traditions, Jung believed that this journey of transformation, which he called individuationis at the mystical heart of all religions.
It is a journey to meet the self and at the same time to meet the Divine. Jung's idea of religion as a practical road to individuation is still treated in modern textbooks on the psychology of religionthough his ideas have also been criticized.
After working with the patient for some time and achieving no significant progress, Jung told the man that his alcoholic condition was near to hopeless, save only the possibility of a spiritual experience.
Jung noted that, occasionally, such experiences had been known to reform alcoholics when all other options had failed. Hazard took Jung's advice seriously and set about seeking a personal, spiritual experience.
He also told other alcoholics what Jung had told him about the importance of a spiritual experience. The influence of Jung thus indirectly found its way into the formation of Alcoholics Anonymous, the original twelve-step program.
The above claims are documented in the letters of Jung and Bill Wilson, excerpts of which can be found in Pass It On, published by Alcoholics Anonymous. The remarks were distributed privately in transcript form, from shorthand taken by an attender Jung reportedly approved the transcriptand later recorded in Volume 18 of his Collected Works, The Symbolic Life, For instance, when a member of the Oxford Group comes to me in order to get treatment, I say, 'You are in the Oxford Group; so long as you are there, you settle your affair with the Oxford Group.
I can't do it better than Jesus.
Paranormal beliefs[ edit ] Jung had an apparent interest in the paranormal and occult. For decades he attended seances and claimed to have witnessed "parapsychic phenomena". Initially he attributed these to psychological causes, even delivering lecture in England for the Society for Psychical Research on "The Psychological Foundations for the belief in spirits".
That idea influenced the physicist Wolfgang Pauli with whom, via a letter correspondence, he developed the notion of unus mundus in connection with the notion of nonlocality and some other physicists. In Jung published Psychology and Alchemyin which he analyzed the alchemical symbols and came to the conclusion that there is a direct relationship between them and the psychoanalytical process.
Mysterium Coniunctionis was Jung's last book and focused on the "Mysterium Coniunctionis" archetype, known as the sacred marriage between sun and moon.