Women in government - Wikipedia
What is the relationship between race, gender, ethnicity, and social class as facets of identity? 3. D o race, sex, ethnicity, and social class create barriers between people? i. INTERSECTIONS comparing and ranking oppressions-the proverbial,. "I'm more .. panic men, I suspect that your gender symbolism would be quite. Androgyny is the combination of masculine and feminine characteristics. Usually used to This last pairing represented the androgynous couple. The symbolism and meaning of androgyny was a central preoccupation of the German . high on feminine (expressive) traits and ranked low on masculine ( instrumental) traits. Brooker in , considers the murky relationship between humans and technology, Some episodes are set in vividly imaginative future worlds; the most disturbing The minute you see someone you can also see their ranking, Men and women wear perfectly mismatched shades of salmon and teal.
They also believed koti from a poor man watching someone eating a delicious food will cause stomach-aches and dysentery. Of these, pulicudi was the most significant to them. This involved rubbing coconut oil into the pregnant woman, followed by bathing, formal dressing, consultation with an astrologer regarding the expected date of birth and a ceremonial drinking of tamarind juice, dripped along the blade of a sword.
The woman would also select a grain, from which it was believed possible to determine the gender of the child. This ritual was performed in front of the community and contained many symbolic references; for example, the use of the sword was believed to make the child a warrior. There were also various dietary restrictions, both for the woman during pregnancy and for the child in the first few months of its life.
In either case, the ceremonies were conducted by the Maran subgroup of the community and they utilised both elements of superstition and of Hinduism.
The occasions involving cremation were more ritualised than those involving burial. The period was followed by a feast and by participation in sports events, which also involved Nairs from nearby villages. Subsequently, the family stayed in mourning while one male member undertook a dikshaduring which time he had to maintain a pure life. This involved him living with a Brahmin, bathing twice daily and desisting from cutting either his hair or his fingernails, as well as being prevented from speaking with or indeed even seeing women.
In some cases the diksha might last for a year rather than the more usual forty-one days, in which case there would be considerable celebration at its end. Each of these was governed by a rajah king and was subdivided into organisational units known as nads. It was an inherited role, originally bestowed by a king, and of a lower ritual rank than the royal lineages. Although Nair families, they generally used the title of Samantan and were treated as vassals.
However, some naduvazhi were feudatory chiefs, former kings whose territory had been taken over by, for example, the Zamorins of Calicut. In these instances, although they were obeisant to the rajah they held a higher ritual rank than the Zamorin as a consequence of their longer history of government; they also had more power than the vassal chiefs. The naduvazhi families each saw themselves as a distinct caste in the same manner as did the rajahs; they did not recognise other naduvazhi families as being equal to them.
There was usually a permanent force of between and men available and these were called upon by the rajah when required. Roads did not exist, nor wheeled vehicles or pack animals, until after They ceased attending at the age of 18 but were expected to be available for military duty at a day's notice. The function of these schools became less significant practically following the introduction of the Arms Act by the British, which limited the right of Nairs to carry arms; however, they continued to exist and provided some training to those Nair men who did not attend English schools.
This training became evident at village festivals, during which a martial review would take place. The landlord was also usually the desavazhi headman and in all cases their families were known as jenmis. These landlords were from the lineages of the royal families or feudatory chiefs; or were patrilineal Nambudiri families or the estates of temples operated by groups of those families.
They were also from the lineages of the matrilineal vassal Samantan chiefs and, finally, the lowest jenmis in terms of ritual ranking were Nairs who had inherited from matrilineal ancestors to whom land and the concomitant headmanship had been granted by a king. In all cases, the landholdings could not be sold without royal permission.
This meant that there was little need for close central control by the higher levels in the organisational hierarchy, and it also meant that trade between villages was minimal. Such traders as did exist were mostly concentrated in the port towns and consisted of immigrant Syrians, Muslims, Christians and Jews, with Hindu traders later arriving from other parts of India, as well as the Europeans.
A Nair family was considered to be part of the village organisation even if they had moved away from it. There were other castes in these villages, and other religious groups also, but they were excluded from the organisations.
This arrangement was different from that found elsewhere in India, and another difference was that each house, whether for Nairs or otherwise, was usually in its own compound. Even though most sports emphasize stereotypically masculine qualities, such as strength, competition, and aggression, women who participate in sports are still expected to conform to strictly feminine gender norms. Although traditional gender norms are gradually changing, female athletes, especially those that participate in male-dominated sports such as boxing, weight lifting, American football, ice hockey, and motor sports, are still often viewed as deviating from the boundaries of femininity and may suffer repercussions such as discrimination or mistreatment from administrators, harassment by fans, and decreased media attention.
Fighting in wars and drinking alcohol are both traditionally masculine activities in many cultures. Evidence points to the negative impact of hegemonic masculinity on men's health-related behavior, with American men making Twenty-five percent of men aged 45 to 60 do not have a personal physician, increasing their risk of death from heart disease. Men between 25 and 65 are four times more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than women, and are more likely to be diagnosed with a terminal illness because of their reluctance to see a doctor.
Reasons cited for not seeing a physician include fear, denial, embarrassment, a dislike of situations out of their control and the belief that visiting a doctor is not worth the time or cost.
While the causes of drinking and alcoholism are complex and varied, gender roles and social expectations have a strong influence encouraging men to drink. According to Stibbe, although the magazine ostensibly focused on health it also promoted traditional masculine behaviors such as excessive consumption of convenience foods and meat, alcohol consumption and unsafe sex.
Commercials often focus on situations in which a man overcomes an obstacle in a group, working or playing hard construction or farm workers or cowboys. Those involving play have central themes of mastery of nature or each otherrisk and adventure: There is usually an element of danger and a focus on movement and speed watching fast cars or driving fast.
The bar is a setting for the measurement of masculinity in skills such as billiardsstrength, and drinking ability. According to gay human-rights campaigner Peter Tatchell: Contrary to the well-intentioned claim that gays are "just the same" as straights, there is a difference. What is more, the distinctive style of gay masculinity is of great social benefit.
Wouldn't life be dull without the flair and imagination of queer fashion designers and interior decorators? How could the NHS cope with no gay nurses, or the education system with no gay teachers? Society should thank its lucky stars that not all men turn out straight, macho and insensitive.
The different hetero and homo modes of maleness are not, of course, biologically fixed. In the documentary The Butch Factor, gay men one of them transgender were asked about their views of masculinity. Masculine traits were generally seen as an advantage in and out of the closetallowing "butch" gay men to conceal their sexual orientation longer while engaged in masculine activities such as sports.
Effeminacy is inaccurately  associated with homosexuality and some gay men doubted their sexual orientation; they did not see themselves as effeminate, and felt little connection to gay culture. More likely to face bullying and harassment throughout their lives,  they are taunted by derogatory words such as " sissy " implying feminine qualities.
Effeminate, " campy " gay men sometimes use what John R. Ballew called "camp humor", such as referring to one another by female pronouns according to Ballew, "a funny way of defusing hate directed toward us [gay men]" ; however, such humor "can cause us [gay men] to become confused in relation to how we feel about being men". Identifying those aspects of being a man we most value and then cultivate those parts of our selves can lead to a healthier and less distorted sense of our own masculinity.
This shift led to increased cooperation between the men's liberation and gay liberation movements developing, in part, because masculinity was understood as a social construct and in response to the universalization of "men" in previous men's movements. Men's-rights activists worked to stop second-wave feminists from influencing the gay-rights movement, promoting hypermasculinity as inherent to gay sexuality.
In LGBT cultures, masculine women are often referred to as " butch ". According to John Tosh, masculinity has become a conceptual framework used by historians to enhance their cultural explorations instead of a specialty in its own right. The importance he places on public history hearkens back to the initial aims of gender history, which sought to use history to enlighten and change the present.
Tosh appeals to historians to live up to the "social expectation" of their work,  which would also require a greater focus on subjectivity and masculinity.
In a study of the Low CountriesDudink proposes moving beyond the history of masculinity by embedding analysis into the exploration of nation and nationalism making masculinity a lens through which to view conflict and nation-building. According to men's-rights activists, the media does not address men's-rights issues and men are often portrayed negatively in advertising.
And you can see that in the media today. Interest group A group of people who work to influence political decisions affecting them. Intergenerational mobility A vertical change of social status from one generation to the next. Interlocking directorates The practice of overlapping memberships on corporate boards of directors. Intermittent reinforcement In learning theory, the provision of a reward sometimes but not always when a desired behavior is shown.
Internalization The process of taking social norms, roles, and values into one's own mind. Interpretive approach One of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology; focuses on how individuals make sense of the world and react to the symbolic meanings attached to social life.
Intragenerational mobility A vertical change of social status experienced by an individual within his or her own lifetime. Invention An innovation in material or nonmaterial culture, often produced by combining existing cultural elements in new ways; a source of cultural change.
IQ intelligence quotient test A standardized set of questions or problems designed to measure verbal and numerical knowledge and reasoning. Keynesian economics The economic theory advanced by John Maynard Keynes, which holds that government intervention, through deficit spending, may be necessary to maintain high levels of employment.
Kinship Socially defined family relationships, including those based on common parentage, marriage, or adoption. Labeling theory A theory of deviance that focuses on the process by which some people are labeled deviant by other people and thus take on deviant identities rather than on the nature of the behavior itself.
Labor-market segmentation The existence of two or more distinct labor markets, one of which is open only to individuals of a particular gender or ethnicity. Laissez-faire economics The economic theory advanced by Adam Smith, which holds that the economic system develops and functions best when left to market forces, without government intervention.
Language Spoken or written symbols combined into a system and governed by rules. Law The system of formalized rules established by political authorities and backed by the power of the state for the purpose of controlling or regulating social behavior. Learning theory In psychology, the theory that specific human behaviors are acquired or forgotten as a result of the rewards or punishments associated with them. Legal protection The protection of minority-group members through the official policy of a governing unit.Rank Me from Least Attractive to Most Attractive - Lineup - Cut
Legitimate In reference to power, the sense by people in a situation that those who are exercising power have the right to do so. Lesbian A woman who is emotionally, erotically, and physically attracted to other women. Life chances The probabilities of an individual having access to or failing to have access to various opportunities or difficulties in society. Life course The biological and social sequence of birth, growing up, maturity, aging, and death.
Life-course analysis An examination of the ways in which different stages of life influence socialization and behavior. Life expectancy The average years of life anticipated for people born in a particular year. Life-style Family, child-bearing, and educational attitudes and practices; personal values; type of residence; consumer, political, and civic behavior; religion.
Life table A statistical table that presents the death rate and life expectancy of each of a series of age-sex categories for a particular population. Line job A job that is part of the central operations of an organization rather than one that provides support services for the operating structure.
Lobbying The process of trying to influence political decisions so they will be favorable to one's interests and goals. Location In Kanter's view, a person's position in an organization with respect to having control over decision making. Looking-glass self The sense of self an individual derives from the way others view and treat him or her. Macro level An analysis of societies that focuses on large-scale institutions, structures, and processes.
Magic According to Malinowski, "a practical art consisting of acts which are only means to a definite end expected to follow. Marriage A social institution that recognizes and approves the sexual union of two or more individuals and includes a set of mutual rights and obligations. Marriage rate Number of marriages in a year per single women 15 to 44 years old. Marriage squeeze A situation in which the eligible individuals of one sex outnumber the supply of potential marriage partners of the other sex.
Marxian approach A theory that uses the ideas of Karl Marx and stresses the importance of class struggle centered around the social relations of economic production. Mass hysteria Widely felt fear and anxiety. Mass media Widely disseminated forms of communication, such as books, magazines, radio, television, and movies. Matthew effect The social process whereby one advantage an individual has is likely to lead to additional advantages.
Mean, arithmetic The sum of a set of mathematical values divided by the number of values; a measure of central tendency in a series of data. Median The number that cuts a distribution of figures in half; a positional measure of central tendency in a series of data.
Medicaid A federal-state matching program that provides medical assistance to certain low income persons. Medicare A federal health insurance program. Individuals are eligible if they receive Social Security benefits, federal disability benefits, or sometimes if they have end-stage kidney disease. Method of comparison An approach that compares one subgroup or society with another one for the purpose of understanding social differences.
Methodology The rules, principles, and practices that guide the collection of evidence and the conclusions drawn from it. Metropolitan Statistical Area MSA A geographical area containing either one city with 50, or more residents or an urban area of at least 50, inhabitants and a total population of at leastexcept in New England where the required total is 75, Micro level An analysis of societies that focuses on small-scale process, such as how individuals interact and how they attach meanings to the social actions of others.
Migration The relatively permanent movement of people from one area to another. Millenarian movements Social movements based on the expectation that society will be suddenly transformed through supernatural intervention. Minority group Any recognizable racial, religious, ethnic, or social group that suffers from some disadvantage resulting from the action of a dominant group with higher social status and greater privileges.
Mode The value that occurs most often in a series of mathematical values. Modeling Copying the behavior of admired people.
Modernization The economic and social transformation that occurs when a traditional agricultural society becomes highly industrialized. Monopoly The exclusive control of a particular industry, market, service, or commodity by a single organization.
Mores Strongly held social norms, a violation of which causes a sense of moral outrage. Mortality rate The number of deaths per thousand in a population. Multinational corporation A corporation that locates its operations in a number of nations. Multiple-nuclei theory A theory of urban development holding that cities develop around a number of different centers, each with its own special activities. Nation A relatively autonomous political grouping that usually shares a common language and a particular geography.
Nation-state A social organization in which political authority overlaps a cultural and geographical community. Negative sanctions Actions intended to deter or punish unwanted social behaviors. Negotiation A form of social interaction in which two or more parties in conflict or competition arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement.
Network See Social network. Nomadic Societies that move their residences from place to place. Nonverbal communication Visual and other meaningful symbols that do not use language. Norm A shared rule about acceptable or unacceptable social behavior. Normal science A term used by Kuhn to describe research based on one or more past scientific achievements that are accepted as a useful foundation for further study. Nuclear family A family form consisting of a married couple and their children.
Objectivity Procedures researchers follow to minimize distortions in observation or interpretation due to personal or social values. Occupation A position in the world of work that involves specialized knowledge and activities.
Occupational segregation The concentration of workers by gender or ethnicity into certain jobs but not others. Oligarchy The rule of the many by the few. Oligopoly The control of a particular industry, market, service, or commodity by a few large organizations. Open system In organizational theory, the degree to which an organization is open to and dependent on its environment. Operationalization In research, the actual procedures or operations conducted to measure a variable. Opportunity In an organization, the potential that a particular position contains for the expansion of work responsibilities and rewards.
Organization A social group deliberately formed to pursue certain values and goals. Organizational ritualism A form of behavior in organizations, particularly in bureaucracies, in which people follow the rules and regulations so closely that they forget the purpose of those rules and regulations.
Organizational waste The inefficient use of ideas, expertise, money, or material in an organization. Panic A frightened response by an aggregate of people to an immediate threat. Paradigm In the sociology of science, a coherent tradition of scientific law, theory, and assumptions that forms a distinct approach to problems.
Parallel marriage When husband and wife both work and share household tasks. Participant observation A research method in which the researcher does observation while taking part in the activities of the social group being studied.
Pastoral societies Societies in which the raising and herding of animals such as sheep, goats, and cows is the primary means of subsistence. Patriarchal family A form of family organization in which the father is the formal head of the family.
Peer group Friends and associates of about the same age and social status. Play Spontaneous activity undertaken freely for its own sake yet governed by rules and often characterized by an element of make-believe. Pluralism In ethnic relations, the condition that exists when both majority and minority groups value their distinct cultural identities, and at the same time seek economic and political unity. In political sociology, the view that society is composed of competing interest groups, with power diffused among them.
Political economy model A theory of land use that emphasizes the role of political and economic interests. Political order The institutionalized system of acquiring and exercising power. Political party An organized group of people that seeks to control or influence political decisions through legal means.
Population In demography, all the people living in a given geographic area. In research, the total number of cases with a particular characteristic. Population exclusion The efforts of a society to prevent ethnically different groups from joining it.
Population transfer The efforts of a dominant ethnic group to move or remove members of a minority ethnic group from a particular area. Positive sanctions Rewards for socially desired behavior. Positivist An approach to explaining human action that does not take into account the individual's interpretation of the situation. Postindustrial society A term used by Daniel Bell to refer to societies organized around knowledge and planning rather than around industrial production. Power The capacity of an individual group to control or influence the behavior of others, even in the face of opposition.
Power elite According to Mills, a closely connected group of the corporate rich, political leaders, and military commanders who decide most key social and political issues. Prejudice A "prejudged" unfavorable attitude toward the members of a particular group, who are assumed to possess negative traits. Prestige A social recognition, respect, and deference accorded individuals or groups based on their social status.
Primary deviance Deviant behavior that is invisible to others, short- lived, or unimportant, and therefore does not contribute to the public labeling of an individual as being deviant.
Primary economic sector The sector of an economy in which natural resources are gathered or extracted. Primary group A social group characterized by frequent face-to-face interaction, the commitment and emotional ties members feel for one another, and relative permanence. Principle of cumulative advantage A process whereby the positive features of some institutions help to generate further benefits for them. Privatization The tendency of families in industrial societies to turn away from the community and workplace toward a primary focus on privacy, domesticity, and intimacy.
Processes of socialization Those interactions that convey to persons being socialized how they are to speak, behave, think, and feel. Profession AIR occupation that rests on a theoretical body of knowledge and thus requires specialized training usually recognized by the granting of a degree or credential. Projection A psychological process of attributing ones own unacceptable feelings or desires to other people to avoid guilt and self-blame.
Property The rights and obligations a group or individual has in relation to an object, resource, or activity. Proposition A statement about how variables are related to each other.
Women in Mexico
Prostitution The selling of sexual favors. Race A classification of humans into groups based on distinguishable physical characteristics that may form the basis for significant social identities. Racism The institutionalized domination of one racial group by another.
Random sample A sample of units drawn from a larger population in such a way that every unit has a known and equal chance of being selected.
Women in Mexico - Wikipedia
Range The total spread of values in a set of figures. Rank Place in a social hierarchy. Rank differentiation See Differentiation, rank. Rape A completed sexual assault by a male, usually upon a female, although sometimes upon another male.
Rate of natural increase The difference between birth and death rates, excluding immigration. Rationalization The process of subjecting social relationships to calculation and administration. Real values The values people consider truly important, as evident in their behavior and how they spend their time and money.
Rebellion In anomie theory, a form of deviance that occurs when individuals reject culturally valued means and goals and substitute new means and goals.
In political sociology, the expression of opposition to an established authority. Reference group A social group whose standards and opinions are used by an individual to help define or evaluate beliefs, values, and behaviors. Reform movement A type of social movement that accepts the status quo but seeks certain specific social reforms. Regressive movement A type of social movement whose aim is to move the social world back to where members believe it was at an earlier time.
Relative poverty The condition of having much less income than the average person in society, even if one can afford the necessities of life. Religion A set of shared beliefs and rituals common to a special community and focusing on the sacred and supernatural. Religious movement An organized religious group with the primary goal of changing existing religious institutions. Research design The specific plan for conducting a research study, including sampling, measurement, and data analysis.
Resocialization The process of socializing people away from a group or activity in which they are involved. Resource mobilization theory The theory that social movements are affected by their ability to marshal various key resources. Retreatism In anomie theory, a form of deviance that occurs when individuals abandon culturally valued means and goals.
Revolution A large-scale change in the political leadership of a society and the restructuring of major features of that society.
Revolutionary movement A type of social movement whose aim is to reorganize existing society completely. Riot A destructive and sometimes violent collective outburst. Rising expectations A situation in which people feel that past hardships should not have to be suffered in the future. Ritual In the sociology of religion, the rules of conduct concerning behavior in the presence of the sacred. Intended to produce feelings of reverence, awe, and group identity. Ritualism In anomie theory, a form of deviance in which individuals lose sight of socially valued goals but conform closely to socially prescribed means.
Rival hypothesis An explanation that competes with the original hypothesis in a study. Role To functionalists, the culturally prescribed and socially patterned behaviors associated with particular social positions.
For interactionists, the effort to mesh the demands of a social position with one's own identity. Role accumulation Adding more statuses and roles to the ones an individual already has.
Role conflict A situation in which two or more social roles make incompatible demands on a person. Role exit The process of leaving a role that is central to one's identity and building an identity in a new role while also taking into account one's prior role. Role expectations Commonly shared norms about how a person is supposed to behave in a particular role. Role performance The behaviors of a person performing a certain social role.
Role set The cluster of roles that accompanies a particular status. Rowdyism Generalized interpersonal violence or property destruction occurring at spectator events. Ruling class A small class that controls the means of economic production and dominates political decisions. Rumor A report that is passed informally from one person to another without firm evidence. Sample survey A systematic method of collecting information from respondents, using personal interviews or written questionnaires.
Sanction A social reward or punishment for approved or disapproved behavior; can be positive or negative, formal or informal.