Mary Cassatt - Wikipedia
Mother & Babe Baby Drawing, Cute Drawings, Pencil Drawings, Pencil Art, Marker .. Few relationships can be as special and as cherished as the bond between a mother and . Birth month flowers instead of name, perhaps. Mary Stevenson Cassatt was an American painter and printmaker. She was born in Allegheny . Her painting Two Women Throwing Flowers During Carnival was well received in the .. and tenderly observed paintings and prints on the theme of the mother and child. .. (mentions family relationship to Alexander Cassatt). Choose from thousands of Mother & Child artworks with the option to print on canvas, acrylic, Mother and Child (detail from The Three Ages of Woman), c.how to painting mother and baby with soft pastel step by step 2017
Cassatt admired Degas, whose pastels had made a powerful impression on her when she encountered them in an art dealer's window in I saw art then as I wanted to see it. She felt comfortable with the Impressionists and joined their cause enthusiastically, declaring: She now hoped for commercial success selling paintings to the sophisticated Parisians who preferred the avant-garde.
Her style had gained a new spontaneity during the intervening two years. Previously a studio-bound artist, she had adopted the practice of carrying a sketchbook with her while out-of-doors or at the theater, and recording the scenes she saw. Mary valued their companionship, as neither she nor Lydia had married. A case was made that Mary suffered from narcissistic disturbance, never completing the recognition of herself as a person outside of the orbit of her mother.
Françoise Gilot | artnet
Lydia, who was frequently painted by her sister, suffered from recurrent bouts of illness, and her death in left Cassatt temporarily unable to work. Afraid of having to paint " potboilers " to make ends meet, Cassatt applied herself to produce some quality paintings for the next Impressionist exhibition.
Both were highly experimental in their use of materials, trying distemper and metallic paints in many works, such as Woman Standing Holding a Fan, Amon Carter Museum of American Art. Degas also introduced her to etchingof which he was a recognized master. The two worked side-by-side for a while, and her draftsmanship gained considerable strength under his tutelage. He depicted her in a series of etchings recording their trips to the Louvre. She treasured his friendship but learned not to expect too much from his fickle and temperamental nature after a project they were collaborating on at the time, a proposed journal devoted to prints, was abruptly dropped by him.
Through the efforts of Gustave Caillebottewho organized and underwrote the show, the group made a profit and sold many works, although the criticism continued as harsh as ever. The Revue des Deux Mondes wrote, "M. Cassatt are, nevertheless, the only artists who distinguish themselves Although critics claimed that Cassatt's colors were too bright and that her portraits were too accurate to be flattering to the subjects, her work was not savaged as was Monet 's, whose circumstances were the most desperate of all the Impressionists at that time.
She used her share of the profits to purchase a work by Degas and one by Monet.
Her friend Louisine Elder married Harry Havemeyer inand with Cassatt as advisor, the couple began collecting the Impressionists on a grand scale.
Cassatt's style then evolved, and she moved away from Impressionism to a simpler, more straightforward approach. She began to exhibit her works in New York galleries as well.
AfterCassatt no longer identified herself with any art movement and experimented with a variety of techniques. Eric de Spoelberch, Haverford, Pennsylvania Cassatt and her contemporaries enjoyed the wave of feminism that occurred in the s, allowing them access to educational institutions at newly coed colleges and universities, such as Oberlin and the University of Michigan.
Likewise, women's colleges such as VassarSmith and Wellesley opened their doors during this time. Cassat was an outspoken advocate for women's equalitycampaigning with her friends for equal travel scholarships for students in the s, and the right to vote in the s.
She is depicted in Reading 'Le Figaro' The exhibition brought her into conflict with her sister-in-law Eugenie Carter Cassattwho was anti-suffrage and who boycotted the show along with Philadelphia society in general. Cassatt responded by selling off her work that was otherwise destined for her heirs. The degree of intimacy between them cannot be assessed now, as no letters survive, but it is unlikely they were in a relationship given their conservative social backgrounds and strong moral principles.
Several of Vincent van Gogh 's letters attest Degas' sexual continence. What we need is the characteristic modern person in his clothes, in the midst of his social surroundings, at home or out in the street. Degas produced two prints, notable for their technical innovation, depicting Cassatt at the Louvre looking at artworks while Lydia reads a guidebook.
These were destined for a prints journal planned by Degas together with Camille Pissarro and otherswhich never came to fruition. Cassatt frequently posed for Degas, notably for his millinery series trying on hats.
Degas owned a small printing press, and by day she worked at his studio using his tools and press while in the evening she made studies for the etching plate the next day. However, in AprilDegas abruptly withdrew from the prints journal they had been collaborating on, and without his support the project folded.
Degas' withdrawal piqued Cassatt who had worked hard at preparing a print, In the Opera Box, in a large edition of fifty impressions, no doubt destined for the journal. Although Cassatt's warm feelings for Degas were to last her entire life, she never again worked with him as closely as she had over the prints journal. Mathews notes that she ceased executing her theater scenes at this time. Some of these works depict her own relatives, friends, or clients, although in her later years she generally used professional models in compositions that are often reminiscent of Italian Renaissance depictions of the Madonna and Child.
Aftershe concentrated almost exclusively on mother-and-child subjects. She had matured considerably and became more diplomatic and less blunt in her opinions. She also became a role model for young American artists who sought her advice. Among them was Lucy A. Early images[ edit ] Icon of the enthroned Virgin and Child with saints and angels, and the Hand of God above, 6th centurySaint Catherine's Monasteryperhaps the earliest iconic image of the subject to survive. There was a great expansion of the cult of Mary after the Council of Ephesus inwhen her status as Theotokos "God-bearer" was confirmed; this had been a subject of some controversy until then, though mainly for reasons to do with arguments over the nature of Christ.
In mosaics in Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, dating fromjust after the council, she is not yet shown with a haloand she is also not shown in Nativity scenes at this date, though she is included in the Adoration of the Magi. By the next century the iconic depiction of the Virgin enthroned carrying the infant Christ was established, as in the example from the only group of icons surviving from this period, at Saint Catherine's Monastery in Egypt.
This type of depiction, with subtly changing differences of emphasis, has remained the mainstay of depictions of Mary to the present day. The image at Mount Sinai succeeds in combining two aspects of Mary described in the Magnificather humility and her exaltation above other humans, and has the Hand of God above, up to which the archangels look. An early icon of the Virgin as queen is in the church of Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome, datable to by the kneeling figure of Pope John VIIa notable promoter of the cult of the Virgin, to whom the infant Christ reaches his hand.
This type was long confined to Rome. The roughly half-dozen varied icons of the Virgin and Child in Rome from the 6th - 8th century form the majority of the representations surviving from this period; "isolated images of the Madonna and Child Other narrative scenes for Byzantine cycles on the Life of the Virgin were being evolved, relying on apocyphal sources to fill in her life before the Annunciation to Mary.
By this time the political and economic collapse of the Western Roman Empire meant that the Western, Latin, church was unable to compete in the development of such sophisticated iconographyand relied heavily on Byzantine developments. The earliest surviving image in a Western illuminated manuscript of the Madonna and Child comes from the Book of Kells of about there is a similar carved image on the lid of St Cuthbert's coffin of and, though magnificently decorated in the style of Insular artthe drawing of the figures can only be described as rather crude compared to Byzantine work of the period.
This was in fact an unusual inclusion in a Gospel bookand images of the Virgin were slow to appear in large numbers in manuscript art until the book of hours was devised in the 13th century. The Madonna of humility by Domenico di Bartolo, is considered one of the most innovative devotional images from the early Renaissance.
- Maternity, 1909 by Pablo Picasso
- Mary Cassatt
- Françoise Gilot
Very few early images of the Virgin Mary survive, though the depiction of the Madonna has roots in ancient pictorial and sculptural traditions that informed the earliest Christian communities throughout Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East. Important to Italian tradition are Byzantine iconsespecially those created in Constantinople Istanbulthe capital of the longest, enduring medieval civilization whose icons participated in civic life and were celebrated for their miraculous properties.
Byzantium saw itself as the true Romeif Greek -speaking, Christian empire with colonies of Italians living among its citizens, participating in Crusades at the borders of its land, and ultimately, plundering its churches, palaces and monasteries of many of its treasures.
Later in the Middle Agesthe Cretan school was the main source of icons for the West, and the artists there could adapt their style to Western iconography when required.
While theft is one way that Byzantine images made their way West to Italy, the relationship between Byzantine icons and Italian images of the Madonna is far more rich and complicated. Byzantine art played a long, critical role in Western Europe, especially when Byzantine territories included parts of Eastern Europe, Greece and much of Italy itself.
Byzantine manuscripts, ivories, gold, silver and luxurious textiles were distributed throughout the West. In Byzantium, Mary's usual title was the Theotokos or Mother of God, rather than the Virgin Mary and it was believed that salvation was delivered to the faithful at the moment of God's incarnation. That theological concept takes pictorial form in the image of Mary holding her infant son.
However, what is most relevant to the Byzantine heritage of the Madonna is twofold. First, the earliest surviving independent images of the Virgin Mary are found in Rome, the center of Christianity in the medieval West. One is a valued possession of Santa Maria in Trastevereone of the many Roman churches dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
Another, a splintered, repainted ghost of its former self, is venerated at the Pantheonthat great architectural wonder of the Ancient Roman Empirethat was rededicated to Mary as an expression of the Church's triumph.
Both evoke Byzantine tradition in terms of their medium, that is, the technique and materials of the paintings, in that they were originally painted in tempera egg yolk and ground pigments on wooden panels. In this respect, they share the Ancient Roman heritage of Byzantine icons.
Second, they share iconographyor subject matter. Each image stresses the maternal role that Mary plays, representing her in relationship to her infant son. It is difficult to gauge the dates of the cluster of these earlier images, however, they seem to be primarily works of the 7th and 8th centuries.
Later medieval period[ edit ] Rest on The Flight into Egyptc. It was not until the revival of monumental panel painting in Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries, that the image of the Madonna gains prominence outside of Rome, especially throughout Tuscany.
While members of the mendicant orders of the Franciscan and Dominican Orders are some of the first to commission panels representing this subject matter, such works quickly became popular in monasteries, parish churches, and homes.
Some images of the Madonna were paid for by lay organizations called confraternities, who met to sing praises of the Virgin in chapels found within the newly reconstructed, spacious churches that were sometimes dedicated to her.
Paying for such a work might also be seen as a form of devotion. Its expense registers in the use of thin sheets of real gold leaf in all parts of the panel that are not covered with paint, a visual analogue not only to the costly sheaths that medieval goldsmiths used to decorate altars, but also a means of surrounding the image of the Madonna with illumination from oil lamps and candles.
Even more precious is the bright blue mantle colored with lapis lazulia stone imported from Afghanistan. This is the case of one of the most famous, innovative and monumental works that Duccio executed for the Laudesi at Santa Maria Novella in Florence. Often the scale of the work indicates a great deal about its original function. Often referred to as the Rucellia Madonna c.
Duccio made an even grander image of the Madonna enthroned for the high altar of the cathedral of Siena, his home town. Known as the Maesta —11the image represents the pair as the center of a densely populated court in the central part of a complexly carpentered work that lifts the court upon a predella pedestal of altarpiece of narrative scenes and standing figures of prophets and saints.
In turn, a modestly scaled image of the Madonna as a half-length figure holding her son in a memorably intimate depiction, is to be found in the National Gallery of London.
This is clearly made for the private devotion of a Christian wealthy enough to hire one of the most important Italian artists of his day. Lorenzo MonacoFlorencec. Duccio and his contemporaries inherited early pictorial conventions that were maintained, in part, to tie their own works to the authority of tradition. Despite all of the innovations of painters of the Madonna during the 13th and 14th centuries, Mary can usually be recognized by virtue of her attire.
Customarily when she is represented as a youthful mother of her newborn child, she wears a deeply saturated blue mantle over a red garment. This mantle typically covers her head, where sometimes, one might see a linen, or later, transparent silk veil.
She holds the Christ Child, or Baby Jesus, who shares her halo as well as her regal bearing. Often her gaze is directed out at the viewer, serving as an intercessor, or conduit for prayers that flow from the Christian, to her, and only then, to her son.
However, late medieval Italian artists also followed the trends of Byzantine icon painting, developing their own methods of depicting the Madonna. Sometimes, the Madonna's complex bond with her tiny child takes the form of a close, intimate moment of tenderness steeped in sorrow where she only has eyes for him.
While the focus of this entry currently stresses the depiction of the Madonna in panel painting, it should be noted that her image also appears in mural decoration, whether mosaics or fresco painting on the exteriors and interior of sacred buildings. She is found high above the apse, or east end of the church where the liturgy is celebrated in the West. She is also found in sculpted form, whether small ivories for private devotion, or large sculptural reliefs and free-standing sculpture.