Beyond Father’s Day: A Reflection of a Muslim Father-Daughter Relationship | Muslim Girl
The Reconquista is a name used in English to describe the period in the history of the Iberian The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest which the Christian Iberian kingdoms opposed and conquered the Muslim kingdoms, understood as a common enemy. them are a result of the cooperative relationships formed during Muslim rule of al- group claimed direct descent from Fatima, Muhammad's daughter, and proclaimed .. In a letter to his father, this young Jew says that hatred of Jews in Fez is. The father, with grief for him, smote his cheeks within wedlock—and partly because of it—this father-daughter relationship would prove recent past, against the backdrop of an Islamic incursion into southern Spain in
By the end of the 10th century, Aragon was annexed by Navarre. Sobrarbe and Ribagorza were small counties and had little significance to the progress of the Reconquista. In the late 9th century under Count WilfredBarcelona became the de facto capital of the region.
It controlled the other counties' policies in a union, which led in to the independence of Barcelona under Count Borrel IIwho declared that the new dynasty in France the Capets were not the legitimate rulers of France nor, as a result, of his county.
These states were small and, with the exception of Navarre, did not have the capacity for attacking the Muslims in the way that Asturias did, but their mountainous geography rendered them relatively safe from being conquered, and their borders remained stable for two centuries.
Expansion into the Crusades and military orders[ edit ] A battle of the Reconquista from the Cantigas de Santa Maria In the High Middle Agesthe fight against the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula became linked to the fight of the whole of Christendom.
The Reconquista was originally a mere war of conquest.
In Chicago and elsewhere, Latinos converting to Islam | Chicago Sun-Times
It only later underwent a significant shift in meaning toward a religiously justified war of liberation see the Augustinian concept of a Just War. The papacy and the influential Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy not only justified the acts of war but actively encouraged Christian knights to seek armed confrontation with Moorish "infidels" instead of with each other.
From the 11th century onwards indulgences were granted: Not until and the Council of Clermont did the Reconquista amalgamate the conflicting concepts of a peaceful pilgrimage and armed knight-errantry. But the papacy left no doubt about the heavenly reward for knights fighting for Christ militia Christi: The pope promised them the same indulgences that he had promised to those who chose to join the First Crusade.
Later military orders such as the Order of SantiagoMontesaOrder of Calatravaand the Knights Templar were founded or called to fight in Iberia. The Popes called the knights of Europe to join the effort to destroy the Muslim states of the peninsula. The large territories awarded to military orders and nobles were the origin of the latifundia in today's Andalusia and Extremadura in Spain, and Alentejo in Portugal.
Military culture in medieval Iberia[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message In an atmosphere of constant conflict, warfare and daily life were strongly intertwined during this period.
In Chicago and elsewhere, Latinos converting to Islam
Small, lightly equipped armies reflected the need for society to be on constant alert. These forces were capable of moving long distances in short times, allowing a quick return home after sacking a target.
Battles were mainly waged between clans, expelling intruder armies or sacking expeditions. In the context of the relative isolation of the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe, and the contact with Moorish culture, geographical and cultural differences necessitated the use of military strategies, tactics, and equipment that were markedly different from those found in the rest of western Europe during this period.
Medieval Iberian armies mainly comprised two types of forces: Infantry only went to war if needed, which was not frequent. Cavalry and infantry[ edit ] Iberian cavalry tactics involved knights approaching the enemy, throwing javelinsthen withdrawing to a safe distance before commencing another assault. Once the enemy formation was sufficiently weakened, the knights charged with thrusting spears lances did not arrive in Hispania until the 11th century.
Reconquista - Wikipedia
There were three types of knights caballeros: Royal knights were mainly nobles with a close relationship with the king, and thus claimed a direct Gothic inheritance. Royal knights were equipped in the same manner as their Gothic predecessors: Noble knights came from the ranks of the infanzones or lower nobles, whereas the commoner knights were not noble but were wealthy enough to afford a horse.
Diaz was baptized, had his first communion and was confirmed in the Catholic church. His parents, immigrants from Mexico, decorate their home with images of Jesus Christ and the Mexican icon of Mary, la Virgen de Guadalupe.SPAIN: DAUGHTER OF CUBAN LEADER CASTRO CRITICISES FATHER IN NEW BOOK
Efrain Diaz at his Brighton Park home. For example, he tells them, both Jesus Christ and Mary have a chapter in the Quran, the sacred book of Islam. To believe in Islam, he tells them, is to believe in Jesus as a highly respected prophet and in Mary as his mother.
And the languages his family speaks and the language he prays in — Spanish and Arabic — have strong historic connections and similarities.
When he decided to commit to Islam, he was alone in a jail cell, facing drug charges.
Beyond Father’s Day: A Reflection of a Muslim Father-Daughter Relationship
In his cell, he had the company of two books: So he sits facing towards Mecca. He lives in the same building where his parents, aunts and uncles live and takes care of the family. Every afternoon, he picks up his daughter from school. When Diaz picked up the Quran, he prayed for the chance to return to his family and promised he would change.
He was alone in his prison cell when he took his shahada, or declaration of faith, and became part of the Latino Muslim community. Weakened by the Navarrese civil war, the bulk of the realm eventually fell before the onslaught of the Spanish armies — However, the Navarrese territory north of the Pyrenees remained beyond the reach of an increasingly powerful Spain. Lower Navarre became a province of France in Nevertheless, the Basques enjoyed a great deal of self-government until the French Revolution and the Carlist Wars, when the Basques supported heir apparent Carlos V and his descendants.
Since then, despite the current limited self-governing status of the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre as settled by the Spanish Constitution, many Basques have attempted higher degrees of self-empowerment see Basque nationalismsometimes by acts of violence.
LabourdLower Navarreand Soule were integrated into the French department system startingwith Basque efforts to establish a region-specific political-administrative entity failing to take off to date. However, in Januarya single agglomaration community was established for the Basque Country in France.
The BAC only includes three of the seven provinces of the currently called historical territories. It is sometimes referred to simply as "the Basque Country" or Euskadi by writers and public agencies only considering those three western provinces, but also on occasions merely as a convenient abbreviation when this does not lead to confusion in the context.
Others reject this usage as inaccurate and are careful to specify the BAC or an equivalent expression such as "the three provinces", up to referred to as "Provincias Vascongadas" in Spanish when referring to this entity or region. Likewise, terms such as "the Basque Government" for "the government of the BAC" are commonly though not universally employed.