OnFaith: The Connection Between The Old And New Testament, Explained
When a person begins to read the Bible, he quickly discovers that the Old and New Testaments seem to emphasize different jingle-bells.infoion over why these. The Old Testament can be viewed more easily through historical and prophetic eyes, and is a necessary preface to the content of the New. How do Christians know which Old Testament laws apply to them? his indwelling Spirit, has put our relationship with God on a new footing.”.
Be the first to start comment or request an explanation. The Bible is a progressive revelation. If you skip the first half of any good book and try to finish it, you will have a difficult time understanding the characters, the plot and the ending. In the same way, the New Testament is only completely understood when it is rightly viewed as a fulfillment of the events, characters, laws, sacrificial system, covenants and promises of the Old Testament.
If the only Word from God that we had was just the New Testament, we would come to the Gospels and not really know why the Jews were even searching for a Messiah. Without the benefit of what God shares with us in the Old Testament, we would be unable to identify Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah through the many detailed prophecies that were given Him, e. Without the benefit of the knowledge presented to us in the Old Testament, we would be totally unable to understand the Jewish customs that are mentioned only in passing in the pages of the New Testament.
Consequently, we could not understand why Jesus was so upset as He cleansed the temple courtyard. Most importantly however, we would ultimately be unable to understand that we can make use of the same wisdom that Christ used in His many replies to His adversaries and to those who ridiculed Him.
The New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the apostles record many of the fulfillments of prophecies that were written hundreds of years earlier by Old Testament prophets. It is the life of Jesus Himself and all that He accomplished that is the powerful validation of Jesus when He claims to be the promised Christ. Even those prophecies in the New Testament, which are for the most part found in the Book of Revelations, are derived from earlier prophecies found in the books of the Old Testament.
He went a long way towards re- that their different emphases are just that: Testaments is not thereby ruled out. Old and New Testaments 3. The NT has priority over the OT.
However, he continued to stress the most extreme example of this position is, ofpredominance of law in the Old and of grace The dimensions of Scripture 1. The problem of the canon. The subject of course, the rejection of the OT by such asin the New.
Relationship of Old Testament and New Testament
Marcionite tendencies in more re-ing of the OT characterizes the Lutheran The literary dimensions of the Bible include where. It will suffice here to mention the cent times are seen in the deutsche Christenhermeneutic of law and grace, and helps to the language and genre of the various parts.
There is also an incipientBultmann. The existence of the Christian church did not dissent from their in the church and in individual Christian pi- John Calvin significantly places his discus- Septuagint, a Greek Targum of the OT, does Jewish contemporaries over which books ety.
Preachers and people alike find the OTsion of the relationship of the Testaments in not eliminate the distinctions since this clearly constituted the authoritative canon of the problematic and its consequent neglect resultsthe wider context of the revelation of the Re- has Hebrew sources. It does, however, reduce Hebrew Scriptures. That being the case, and in a 'canon within the canon' heavilydeemer Institutes, II. Book Two of the the differences by adapting the OT to the given the eventual acceptance of a body of weighted in favour of the NT.
Further- literature as a NT canon, the question arises ple maintain that the whole Bible is equallythe Redeemer in Christ, First Disclosed to the more, while the NT introduces new literary of how these two corpora were first perceived the word of God, but in practice, the difficul-Fathers Under the Law, and Then to Us in the genres not found in the Old, such as gospels as comprising one canon of Christian ties of dealing consistently with the OT canGospel'.
In this section, Calvin first deals with and epistles, it also includes wisdom forms, Scripture. This is the historical question of the lead to its eclipse if not to some intuitive,the effects of the fall of the human race into historical narratives, prophecy and apoca- canon.
The biblical-theological question con- Christianizing approach. Chapter 7 is lyptic, which it shares with the Old. There are, however, carefully consideredthe Folk of the Old Covenant under Itself, but The historical dimension, which is con- 2.
The OT has priority over the NT. In this claim Calvin includes and discontinuity between the Testaments. An extreme developmental position wasboth the moral and the ceremonial law. The The undisputed continuity lies in the cultural ology, pp. The scholars named are ject Marcionism, the Reformation was unableshadow.
Calvin points to the essential unity NT and his first adherents were members of not Jewish theologians who reject altogether to avoid keeping the OT, but the modern re-of the Testaments while in no way ignoring the ancient race that is the focus of the OT.
Two chapters Institutes, II, The fact that the movement which develops they are theologians who acknowledge the and the Church' quoted in Baker, p. The10 and 11 are devoted to the similarity of the out of the life, death and resurrection of Jesus i mportance of the NT and claim adherence to Lutheran dialectic of law and gospel failed toOT and the NT, and to the differences be- of Nazareth very quickly begins to include the Christian faith.
The best example of this eradicate the medieval practice of imposing atween them respectively. It is here that Calvin people of other races is seen in the NT to be position is provided in A.
The continuity moves through the entry of sin to the history history as well as its goal. The continuity ofRudolf Bultmann's existential approach led between the Testaments is emphasized in Vis- of Israel as the chosen people. This history the Testaments is usually conceived in termshim to emphasize this hermeneutical gap to cher's essay 'Everywhere the Scripture is leads eventually to Jesus Christ and finally to of some kind of eschatological resolution inthe point where he asserted that the signifi- about Christ Alone' Anderson, The Old Tes- the consummation and the new creation.
The and through Jesus Christ. The question ofcance of the OT was negative, not in the tament and Christian Faith, ch. The how the kingdom of God comes is discussedMarcionite or Nazi sense, but existentially. Testament asserts that God's deed in Jesus tension in this polarity lies in the fact that elsewhere.The Relationship of the Old Testament to the New Testament - Andy Stanley, Mark L. Bailey,
In Christ is not merely one but rather THE deci- biblical salvation-history comes to an end. In History is goal- or end-oriented. It finds its salvation-history and the nature of Christianment for the Christian Faith', in B.
The salvation-historyFaith, Bultmann rejects the old liberal notion this is an elusive concept. Even if both Testa- approach is closely related to the revivedof the development of religion as the basis for ments are equally Christian Scripture, their Oscar Cullmann, in Salvation in History interest in typology as a way of understandingunderstanding the relationship of the Testa- relationship is still open to dispute.
Relationship between the Old and New Testament. – MessageWeek Blog
Vischer's ET, London, sees salvation-history as the inner theological structures of the Bible. This view regards the OT as outmoded approach gives priority in the interpretation focusing on Jesus, and includes in it the escha- The connection was recognized by von Hof-in the light of the purer NT religion.
Bult- of Scripture to the word about Christ in tological tension. It could certainly be argued mann in his Biblische Hermeneutik Noerd-mann preferred to ask how the OT presents which the OT is fulfilled.
Furthermore, the that salvation-history, as a Christian ap- lingen, ; ET, Interpreting the Biblehuman existence. He concluded that it reveals status of the OT as Christian Scripture is ut- proach to the appropriation of the OT, is [Minneapolis,p.
The historythe demand of God though this is not its terly dependent on its fulfilment in the NT. It is necessary to understand Stephen Acts 7: Each has a sense of the continuity be- Hence the events recorded therein are to beorder to grasp NT teaching on the grace given use of typology or, as some would suggest, of tween the salvific, historical events of the OT interpreted teleologically, i.
- Relationship between the Old and New Testament.
- What is the relationship between the Old and New Testaments?
So Bultmann emphasizes the allegorizing, is not the issue. He has pointed and Jesus of Nazareth, so that Jesus is their final goal, and thus as being of the samediscontinuity of the Testaments: The typo-not address us as direct Word of God and as provides the grounds for doing so.
It speaks to a both Testaments equal canonical and theo- salvation-history. It was seen as one impli- thus included the unity of salvation-historyparticular people who stand in a particular logical status is not at all to suggest that they cation of the Reformation's retrieval of the and the interpretation of individual events asethnic history which is not ours' p.
Vischer historical sense of the OT, but also as a rejec- part of the whole history p. It established one of the central tenets recognition that the way God spoke and actedbetween the Testaments. Carl Michalson in In this he adopts one of the thematic polar- of much 20th-century biblical theology: The nature of the anticipation can beagainst Marcionism because it allows the OT variously understood.
One view is that Godto remain as it is. By contrast, traditional ap- Thematic polarities between the Not all salvation-history approaches have acts in the NT in ways patterned by his ac-propriations of the OT as Christian Scripture Testaments such a strong sense of continuity.
Thus his leading of peopleare a form of Marcionism because they exe- stresses discontinuity within the OT: But A number of thematic approaches have been gap between what can he said to have some similarities to his leading of Israel out ofthis argument ignores the question of how proposed which highlight the nature of the happened and what Israel came to confess. Another view is that theJesus, the apostles, and the writers of the NT problem of defining the continuity and dis- The OT consists of a developed tradition of OT type predicts a fulfilling antitype to come.
None can saving history and the record of Israel's Typology is not the same as predictive proph Both Testaments have equal status as be seen as a total solution or as exclusive of response to that saving history.
The processes ecy, but nor is it simply the recognition ofChristian Scripture. David Baker Two Tes- all other proposals. Each involves a polarity of reinterpretation which took place in the coincidences. In the purpose of God, he pro-taments, ch. Once again the Christological OT. This approach raises important questions events. The relationship between the type andWilhelm Vischer, whose views have provoked and trinitarian analogies are helpful in warn- about the historicity of salvation-history.
In the fulfilling antitype is such that grasping therather strident criticisms. In his unfinished ing against facile 'either—or' solutions. But what sense has God acted in history if the shadow in the OT by faith, believing thework, The Witness of the Old Testament to merely to propose that the 'both—and' tension events which are said to evidence this action promises of God, was the means by which theChrist I: The Pentateuch ET, London,be maintained is not to solve the problem.
Salvation-history and eschatological con- is in Christ. Thus, von Rad is able to ac-taments thus: The essence of salvation-history The polarity of salvation-history and es- knowledge on the basis of typology that 'Onewhat the Christ is; the New, who he is' p. Implicit in the the Old Testament to Christ.
Be- goal towards which such history moves. His- Testament', in Westermann, The Old Testa- ginning at the creation event the storyline tory, to be saving history, must involve eschatology. But eschatology is the end of86 87 Relationship of Old Testament and New Testament Systematic theology and biblical theologyment and Christian Faith, p.
The con- with the Lutheran emphasis on discontinuity. It speaks of one plus converted Gentiles, who are privileged to OT. Yet he claims that the OT witnesses tothose of the NT: Understanding the relationship of theshadow their fulfilment in the latter.
The in the time of the law, and in the time of the two Testaments involves understanding thatheart of the antitype in the NT is the person gospel: Thus, both Peter and Paul can the paschal lamb, and other types and ordin- From a literary point of view, the relationship way that foreshadows both the structure andassert that Old Testament prophecy about ances delivered to the people of the Jews, all of the two Testaments involves the history of content of the Christian gospel.
Israel and its king is fulfilled in the resur- foresignifying Christ to come' chapter VII, the Bible as canon. This in turn raises somerection of Jesus Acts 2: These literary and Baker, Two Testaments, One Bible Leicester,tially it goes beyond the fulfilment of promise principle or centre of biblical theology.
The historical concerns point to the internal struc- 2 ; J. Cull-to a definitive fulfilment in the NT. One im- minster theology conceives of a covenant of something of the unity and diversity of the mann, Salvation in History ET, London,plication of this is that the OT is incomplete works with Adam; Westminster Confession of biblical message.
Finally, the centrality of Je- ; J. Preuss, From Shadow to Promise: The two to the Davidic royal line. The prophets con- matic formulations of the person and work of G. Reventlow, Problems of Biblical TheologyTestaments are interdependent in that the ceive of a new covenant which will rectify the Christ. Christology demands that the whole in the Twentieth Century ET, Philadelphia,New is needed to complete the Old, but also failures of Israel to be faithful to the original question be addressed in the light of the re- ; C.
Sensus literalis and sensus plenior. A varia- representative head of a new Israel, and who describing the nature of both the unity andtion on the notion of typology, first by his resurrection demonstrates his accep- the distinctions between the two Testaments. The sensus plenior of tinuity fostered by the law—gospel polarity hasan OT text, or indeed of the whole OT, can- been mentioned above. It could be said to To relate the nature and functions of system- biblical theology than to systematic theology,not be found by exegesis of the texts extend back to Paul and his apparent am- atic theology and biblical theology respect- and because biblical theology is the focus ofthemselves.
Exegesis aims at understanding bivalence about the law, and to the different ively proves distractingly difficult because this volume, that is where we must directwhat was intended by the author, the sensus ways in which the word 'law' is used in the various scholarly camps operate with highly primary attention. But there is a deeper meaning in the NT. An extreme form of discontinuity is divergent definitions of both disciplines, andmind of the divine author which emerges in found in earlier expressions of dispensa- therefore also entertain assumptions and Biblical theologyfurther revelation, usually the NT.