This article explicates the extent to which ethical climate, self-efficacy and hope The construct of positive psychological capital (consisting of hope, resilience and (AIG), Tyco, and most recently, the phone hacking by News of the World (part of . hope as 'the perception that one's goals could be attained' (Cantril, ;. shown that resilience, delay of gratification and stress can affect the academic performance of students. questionnaire, CD-RISC, Perceived Stress scale, College Students' Stressful Event Checklist, and with higher self-efficacy, self- esteem and ence in the relationship between resilience .. () and Hack-. rimental spillover effects on family relations, whereas a productive, fulfilling Perceived self-efficacy occupies a central role in the pations traditionally pursued by males (Betz & Hack- ett, . resilience, and in different cultural milieus.
Total scores range from 30 to The scale has adequate reliability. The Cronbach alpha was found to be 0. The scale had significant positive correlation with Friborg Resilience Scale, 0.
The scale evaluates the adequacy of social support received from three different sources namely family, friends and significant others. It consists of 12 items. Each item is rated on a 7 point scale 1, very strongly disagree to 7, very strongly agree.
Total scores range from 12 to High scores indicate high social support. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency with an alpha coefficient of 0. Each of the 20 statements is scored 1 or 0. The item scores are summed to yield a total score that can range from 0 to 20 with higher scores indicating greater hopelessness. Beck and Steer[ 32 ] score the measure as follows: The internal consistency ranged from 0.
Following informed consent, all participants were interviewed. The scales were administered by the researcher.
The data was collected in one session which lasted for a duration of 1 h. The respondents were assured of confidentiality. The t-test was used to find out the difference between the means and correlation was used to measure the association between two measured quantities.
The significance level was set at 0. Table 1 Open in a separate window The age range of the subjects was 18—65 years. A large number of subjects were females It was found that participants in the palliative care had low resilience, lower levels of perceived social support and showed moderate levels of hopeless feelings than the participants in the curative care and the results are presented in Table 2.
Table 2 Open in a separate window The relationship between resilience, perceived social support and hopelessness as measured by BURS, perceived social support scale, and hopelessness scale was examined in curative care.
The results [ Table 3 ] showed that resilience significantly correlated with perceived social support in a positive direction and negatively correlated with hopelessness.
Furthermore, perceived social support was negatively correlated with hopelessness. Similar pattern of correlation was observed in palliative care also. The present study revealed that participants in the curative care have obtained high scores on the factors of resilience, social support and low scores on hopelessness than the other group. In this study, we found higher resilience among the participants in the curative care. Several reports suggested that individuals with higher resilience might have specific features including sound reality testing, good tolerance for negative feelings, strong capacity for self-reflection, and high responsibility.
These findings suggest the protective effects of resilience on emotional distress not only in general population,[ 3435 ] but also in physically ill individuals. The related literature reports hopelessness as a negative factor that causes patients to perceive cancer as a negative and deadly disease. As to social support, it is an important source that has positive effects on increasing longevity and emotional well-being as well as decreasing hopelessness in lifelong diseases such as cancer.
These results correspond well with those of previous studies reported in the literature. These findings are congruent with those in previous studies. These findings indicate that the participants are hopeful and have high social support. It is reported that the social support provided by the family affects the adaptation process and longevity positively. Social support has been found to minimize the risk of psychological distress in cancer patients.
Although emotional distress is a major concern in caring for cancer patients, a certain portion of cancer patients may cope successfully with their illness. Optimistic individuals responded more positively than pessimistic individuals and an optimistic disposition attracts others and promotes the development of social support. Resilience is generally considered as being dynamic and potentially modifiable by the proper interventions. There are several limitations of the present study. First, a cross-sectional design limits the complete understanding of the interplay of resilience on social support and hopelessness.
Second, our sample was composed of a small number of hospitalized cancer patients which limits the generalization of our findings to long-term cancer survivors.
Based on obtained results, they found that there was positive and high correlation between school belonging and academic motivation of high school students. Also regression analysis showed that participation in school affairs and teacher support are main factors to predict the academic achievement. The results indicated the reverse effects of masculine gender roles and direct effect of feminine gender role on codependency.
And Men had suitable resilience compared to women Parsafar and Yazdkhasti, As well as in terms of prediction value of belonging and social support, in the study of Hagerty and Williams, social support had only an indirect effect on depression, and this finding supported the buffer theory of social support.
Sense of belonging was a better predictor of depression. So that in their other study, the same results had been observed in patients with mental retardation Hagerty et al.
Social support had only indirect effects that fluctuated over time, so that in this regard was inconsistent with the resent study.
The results of the study on older adults showed that a higher sense of belonging may predict more reasons to live overall, child-related concerns, responsibility to family, survival and coping beliefs with stress Kissane and McLaren, Pain, interpersonal stress, depression, perceived stress as well as week positive affect had a main effect upon negative affect. These results indicated that high resilience can tolerate the high level of pain fluctuation Strand et al. In the study of Schumacher et al.
High-resilience patients reported lower anxiety and depression, higher physical, emotional and social performance and a higher quality of life in comparison with low-resilience patients. There was no relationship between resilience and age, gender, and primary disease entity. These results were consistent with the present study. In conclusion, based on the results of this study and the relationship of resilience among self-compassion, perceived social support and sense of belonging, it is recommended to provide interventional programs and counseling programs for the family members of the patient can reduce the psychological stress of breast cancer.
Therefore, designing and implementation of interventional studies in this area are recommended. Limitation of this study The small sample size of include studies are potential limitation of this study. There is still need to further studies to access additional information about the resilience issue. The method of sampling convenience was other limitation influencing the generality of all studies.
Conflict of interest There is no conflict of interest in this study. The authors would like to thank the deputy research of Urmia University and all patients with breast cancer who participated in this study.
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