Petruchio's extreme and abusive taming methods and Katherina's outrageous . from the relationship, Petruchio protects Katherina, and as Petruchio protects .. journey, Petruchio tests Katherina by saying that the moon is beautiful when it is. Petruchio is the male protagonist in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew (c. –). Petruchio is a fortune seeker who enters into a marriage with a strong-willed young woman named Kate and then proceeds He puts her to the test by telling her that a man is a woman and that the moon is the sun – she agrees. The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written The main plot depicts the courtship of Petruchio and Katherina, the .. The Shrew's exact relationship with A Shrew is unknown. the taming of Katherina is not just a lesson, but a game – a test of skill and a source of pleasure .
She is refused food and clothing because nothing — according to Petruchio — is good enough for her; he claims that perfectly cooked meat is overcooked, a beautiful dress doesn't fit right, and a stylish hat is not fashionable. Along the way, they meet Vincentio, who is also on his way to Padua, and Katherina agrees with Petruchio when he declares that Vincentio is a woman and then apologises to Vincentio when Petruchio tells her that he is a man.
Back in Padua, Lucentio and Tranio convince a passing pedant to pretend to be Vincentio and confirm the dowry for Bianca. The man does so, and Baptista is happy for Bianca to wed Lucentio still Tranio in disguise.
Bianca, aware of the deception, then secretly elopes with the real Lucentio to get married. However, when Vincentio reaches Padua, he encounters the pedant, who claims to be Lucentio's father.
Tranio still disguised as Lucentio appears, and the pedant acknowledges him to be his son Lucentio. In all the confusion, the real Vincentio is set to be arrested, when the real Lucentio appears with his newly betrothed Bianca, revealing all to a bewildered Baptista and Vincentio. Lucentio explains everything, and all is forgiven by the two fathers. Meanwhile, Hortensio has married a rich widow. In the final scene of the play there are three newly married couples; Bianca and Lucentio, the widow and Hortensio, and Katherina and Petruchio.
Because of the general opinion that Petruchio is married to a shrew, a good-natured quarrel breaks out amongst the three men about whose wife is the most obedient.
Petruchio proposes a wager whereby each will send a servant to call for their wives, and whichever comes most obediently will have won the wager for her husband. Katherina is the only one of the three who comes, winning the wager for Petruchio.
She then hauls the other two wives into the room, giving a speech on why wives should always obey their husbands. The play ends with Baptista, Hortensio and Lucentio marvelling at how successfully Petruchio has tamed the shrew. Sources[ edit ] Although there is no direct literary source for the induction, the tale of a tinker being duped into believing he is a lord is one found in many literary traditions.
Another is found in De Rebus Burgundicis by the Dutch historian Pontus de Huyter, where Philip, Duke of Burgundyafter attending his sister's wedding in Portugal, finds a drunken "artisan" whom he entertains with a "pleasant Comedie. He could also have known the Duke of Burgundy story as, although De Rebus wasn't translated into French untiland into English untilthere is evidence the story existed in English in a jest book now lost by Richard Edwardeswritten in Katherine and Petruchio by James Dromgole Linton c.
The basic elements of the narrative are present in tale 44 of the fourteenth-century Spanish book Libro de los ejemplos del conde Lucanor y de Patronio by Don Juan Manuelwhich tells of a young man who marries a "very strong and fiery woman. Such characters also occur throughout medieval literaturein popular farces both before and during Shakespeare's lifetime, and in folklore.
Written for his daughters as a guide on how to behave appropriately, de la Tour Landry includes "a treatise on the domestic education of women" which features an anecdote in which three merchants make a wager as to which of their wives will prove the most obedient when called upon to jump into a basin of water.
The episode sees the first two wives refuse to obey as in the playit ends at a banquet as does the play and it features a speech regarding the "correct" way for a husband to discipline his wife. Shroeder conjectured that Chevalier de La Tour Landry's depiction of the Queen Vastis story may also have been an influence on Shakespeare.
Petruchio - Wikipedia
Like Shrew, the story features a family with two sisters, the younger of whom is seen as mild and desirable. However, in "Merry Jest", the older sister is obdurate not because it is simply her nature, but because she has been raised by her shrewish mother to seek mastery over men.
Ultimately, the couple return to the family house, where the now tamed woman lectures her sister on the merits of being an obedient wife. The taming in this version is much more physical than in Shakespeare; the shrew is beaten with birch rods until she bleeds, and is then wrapped in the salted flesh of a plough horse the Morrelle of the title.
Warwick Bond and Frederick S. Schwoerer illustration of Act 4, Scene 1 Petruchio rejects the bridal dinner. Engraved by Georg Goldberg c. InJan Harold Brunvand argued that the main source for the play was not literary, but the oral folktale tradition.
Brunvand discovered oral examples of Type spread over thirty European countries, but he could find only 35 literary examples, leading him to conclude "Shakespeare's taming plot, which has not been traced successfully in its entirety to any known printed version, must have come ultimately from oral tradition.
George Gascoigne 's English prose translation Supposes was performed in and printed in Erostrato disguises himself as Dulipo Tranioa servant, whilst the real Dulipo pretends to be Erostrato.
Having done this, Erostrato is hired as a tutor for Polynesta. Meanwhile, Dulipo pretends to formally woo Polynesta so as to frustrate the wooing of the aged Cleander Gremio. Dulipo outbids Cleander, but he promises far more than he can deliver, so he and Erostrato dupe a travelling gentleman from Siena into pretending to be Erostrato's father, Philogano Vincentio. However, when Polynesta is found to be pregnant, Damon has Dulipo imprisoned the real father is Erostrato.
Soon thereafter, the real Philogano arrives, and all comes to a head. Erostrato reveals himself, and begs clemency for Dulipo. Damon realises that Polynesta is truly in love with Erostrato, and so forgives the subterfuge. Having been released from jail, Dulipo then discovers he is Cleander's son.
Date[ edit ] Efforts to establish the play's date of composition are complicated by its uncertain relationship with another Elizabethan play with an almost identical plot but different wording and character names, A Pleasant Conceited Historie, called the taming of a Shrew. Different theories suggest A Shrew could be a reported text of a performance of The Shrew, a source for The Shrew, an early draft possibly reported of The Shrew, or an adaptation of The Shrew. A terminus ante quem for A Shrew seems to be Augustas a stage direction at 3.
The Taming of the Shrew - Wikipedia
Knack features several passages common to both A Shrew and The Shrew, but it also borrows several passages unique to The Shrew. This suggests The Shrew was on stage prior to June Oliver suggests the play was composed no later than He bases this on the title page of A Shrew, which mentions the play had been performed "sundry times" by Pembroke's Men.
When the London theatres were closed on 23 June due to an outbreak of plaguePembroke's Men went on a regional tour to Bath and Ludlow. The tour was a financial failure, and the company returned to London on 28 September, financially ruined.
Over the course of the next three years, four plays with their name on the title page were published; Christopher Marlowe 's Edward II published in quarto in Julyand Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus published in quarto inThe True Tragedy of Richard Duke of York published in octavo in and The Taming of a Shrew published in quarto in May Oliver says it is a "natural assumption" that these publications were sold by members of Pembroke's Men who were broke after the failed tour.
Oliver assumes that A Shrew is a reported version of The Shrew, which means The Shrew must have been in their possession when they began their tour in June, as they didn't perform it upon returning to London in September, nor would they have taken possession of any new material at that time.
She focuses on the closure of the theatres on 23 Junearguing that the play must have been written prior to June for it to have given rise to A Shrew.
Secondly, Elam suggests that Shakespeare derived his Italian idioms and some of the dialogue from Florio's Second Fruits, a bilingual introduction to Italian language and culture. Elam argues that Lucentio's opening dialogue, Tranio, since for the great desire I had To see fair Padua, nursery of arts, I am arrived for fruitful Lombardy, The pleasant garden of great Italy.
Elam's arguments suggest The Shrew must have been written bywhich places the date of composition around — Greg has demonstrated that A Shrew and The Shrew were treated as the same text for the purposes of copyrighti. There are five main theories as to the nature of this relationship: The two plays are unrelated other than the fact that they are both based on another play which is now lost.
This is the Ur-Shrew theory in reference to Ur-Hamlet. A Shrew is an early draft of The Shrew. Oliver suggests, there are "passages in [A Shrew] [ In The Shrew, the Christopher Sly framework is only featured twice; at the opening of the play, and at the end of Act 1, Scene 1. Pope added most of the Sly framework to The Shrew, even though he acknowledged in his preface that he did not believe Shakespeare had written A Shrew.
By comparing seven passages which are similar in both plays, he concluded "the original conception is invariably to be found" in The Shrew. He reached this conclusion primarily because A Shrew features numerous lines almost identical to lines in Marlowe's Tamburlaine and Dr. Instead he labelled A Shrew a bad quarto.
His main argument was that, primarily in the subplot of A Shrew, characters act without motivation, whereas such motivation is present in The Shrew. Alexander believed this represents an example of a "reporter" forgetting details and becoming confused, which also explains why lines from other plays are used from time to time; to cover gaps which the reporter knows have been left. Chamberswho reasserted the source theory. Its textual relation to The Shrew does not bear any analogy to that of other 'bad Quartos' to the legitimate texts from which they were memorised.
The nomenclaturewhich at least a memoriser can recall, is entirely different. The verbal parallels are limited to stray phrases, most frequent in the main plot, for which I believe Shakespeare picked them up from A Shrew.
InLeo Kirschbaum made a similar argument. In an article listing over twenty examples of bad quartos, Kirschbaum did not include A Shrew, which he felt was too different from The Shrew to come under the bad quarto banner; "despite protestations to the contrary, The Taming of a Shrew does not stand in relation to The Shrew as The True Tragedie, for example, stands in relation to 3 Henry VI.
Alexander's theory continued to be challenged as the years went on. Houk developed what came to be dubbed the Ur-Shrew theory; both A Shrew and The Shrew were based upon a third play, now lost. Duthie refined Houk's suggestion by arguing A Shrew was a memorial reconstruction of Ur-Shrew, a now lost early draft of The Shrew; "A Shrew is substantially a memorially constructed text and is dependent upon an early Shrew play, now lost.
The Shrew is a reworking of this lost play. Duthie argues this other version was a Shakespearean early draft of The Shrew; A Shrew constitutes a reported text of a now lost early draft.
In particular, he concentrated on the various complications and inconsistencies in the subplot of A Shrew, which had been used by Houk and Duthie as evidence for an Ur-Shrew, to argue that the reporter of A Shrew attempted to recreate the complex subplot from The Shrew but got confused; "the compiler of A Shrew while trying to follow the subplot of The Shrew gave it up as too complicated to reproduce, and fell back on love scenes in which he substituted for the maneuvers of the disguised Lucentio and Hortensio extracts from Tamburlaine and Faustus, with which the lovers woo their ladies.
Morris summarised the scholarly position in as one in which no clear-cut answers could be found; "unless new, external evidence comes to light, the relationship between The Shrew and A Shrew can never be decided beyond a peradventure.
It will always be a balance of probabilities, shifting as new arguments and opinions are added to the scales. Nevertheless, in the present century, the movement has unquestionably been towards an acceptance of the Bad Quarto theory, and this can now be accepted as at least the current orthodoxy.
The Early Quartos series. Miller agrees with most modern scholars that A Shrew is derived from The Shrew, but he does not believe it to be a bad quarto. She whines and complains about her husband's baby mother, with whom he is still secretly sleeping with.
If Petruchio cheated on Katherine, it wouldn't have been such a big deal. Katherine didn't love him initially in the marriage since she was forced into itso she more than likely wouldn't have cared too much about his infidelity. Besides, in those times, a woman was supposed to obey her husband and that is what was mostly enforced, not vice versa.
Although times have changed, deception in marriages always play a role in how strong the relationship is. Before they were married he attempted to make her believe he was in love with her, and that was his reasoning for marrying her. He actually wanted financial power from their marriage, not her.
Still a shrew at the time, Katherine turned him away but her stubbornness was no match for his persistence. He also made Katherine believe her father already consented their marriage, which turn her against her own father for a short period. Like Petruchio, Marcus also deceives his wife by lying to her.
He tells her she's crazy and is worried about nothing with his mistress. The difference between Marcus and Petruchio is that Marcus lets it slide, while Petruchio is not afraid to put Katherine in her place of an obedient wife.
I say it is the moon that shines so bright. Say as he says, or we shall never go. I say it is the moon. I know it is the moon.
He tamed her to obey and respect him, but she was deceiving him to strengthen their marriage. Katherine knew her husband wouldn't stop forcing her to starve or sleep on the floor if she kept up with her horrible attitude towards him. What he said goes, so even when he was wrong, she would still tell him he was right.
Petruchio's "taming" process proved to be efficient, as Katherine obeys him over all of the other wives to their husbands. Shocked, everyone watches her come to him the second he summoned for her; when she came, she announced in front of everyone how her feelings for Petruchio changed and she's in love with her husband, that's why she's obedient to him.
She understands her wifely duties now, and believes Petruchio's actions towards her were out of love. As far as deception in their marriage, they used it to strengthen their relationship, unlike Marcus and Angela.