# Relationship of cross rates and arbitrague

Exchange Rate Arithmetic: Cross Rates & Triangular Arbitrage. Developed by: Dr . Prabina Rajib. Associate Professor. Vinod Gupta School of Management. Triangular arbitrage is the act of exploiting an arbitrage opportunity resulting from a pricing is the quoted market cross exchange rate for dollars in terms of currency b. If the market cross exchange In observations of triangular arbitrage, the constituent exchange rates have exhibited strong correlation. A study examining. A complete, but concise, illustrated tutorial about how foreign exchange rates are The greater the demand in relation to the supply, the greater the value, and.

This is referred to as purchasing power parity PPP. The Big Mac Index In most cases, purchasing power parity around the world cannot be compared directly, because of local factors.

## Triangular arbitrage

This is just a rough measure, of course, since some costs, like rent and labor, cannot be traded or equalized easily. It also ignores capital flows across borders, which is a much larger determinant of currency exchange rates, especially within a short time period.

Although purchasing power parity makes sense, it cannot really establish foreign exchange rates, because of the difficulties in equalizing the rates if it should differ from parity. When there are no restrictions on the flow of capital or goods and services across international boundaries and if the same goods or assets are sold in different markets for different prices, then the goods or assets can be bought in the cheap market and sold in the more expensive market for a virtually risk-free profit, which is known as arbitrage.

Arbitrage equalizes prices in different markets to within a narrow range. However, sometimes the expense of transporting and selling the goods in the higher-price market is greater than the price differential. For instance, if it takes fewer U. Someone might try to buy the basket of goods from the United States and sell it in Europe.

However, transportation costs and taxes would reduce or eliminate any potential profits significantly. Thus, there is a wide gap that cannot be closed by arbitrage, because of the expenses of buying in 1 country, transporting it to another, then selling it there—at least for most commodities, especially food and energy.

## Currency Cross Rates and Triangular Arbitrage

However, arbitrage works very well in currency trades. Dealers in Currency—Market Makers Most currency trades are now done over the Internet, where time and distance are no barrier.

When you buy or sell currency, you usually do so with a market maker in that currency. There are many market makers for most currencies, especially the major currencies.

A market maker may deal in U. If the market maker starts getting a lot of dollars in exchange for Euros, he will raise the ask price for Euros, and lower the bid price for dollars until the orders start equalizing more. If he didn't do this, he would soon run out of Euros and be stuck with dollars.

### Currency Cross Rates and Triangular Arbitrage in the FX Spot Market

Thus, to stay in business he lowers his bid price for dollars and increases his ask price for Euros. Transactions involving the JPY and CHF have demonstrated a smaller number of opportunities and long average duration around Such variations in incidence and duration of arbitrage opportunities can be explained by variations in market liquidity during the trading day.

For example, the foreign exchange market is found to be most liquid for Asia around The overall foreign exchange market is most liquid around The periods of highest liquidity correspond with the periods of greatest incidence of opportunities for triangular arbitrage. This correspondence is substantiated by the observation of narrower bid-ask spreads during periods of high liquidity, resulting in a greater potential for mispricings and therefore arbitrage opportunities.

### Triangular arbitrage - Wikipedia

However, market forces are driven to correct for mispricings due to a high frequency of trades that will trade away fleeting arbitrage opportunities.

Such electronic systems have enabled traders to trade and react rapidly to price changes. The speed gained from these technologies improved trading efficiency and the correction of mispricings, allowing for less incidence of triangular arbitrage opportunities. Electronic trading systems allow the three constituent trades in a triangular arbitrage transaction to be submitted very rapidly. However, there exists a delay between the identification of such an opportunity, the initiation of trades, and the arrival of trades to the party quoting the mispricing.

Even though such delays are only milliseconds in duration, they are deemed significant. For example, if a trader places each trade as a limit order to be filled only at the arbitrage price and a price moves due to market activity or new price is quoted by the third party, then the triangular transaction will not be completed.