crusades - Why did Saladin show kindness to Richard I? - History Stack Exchange
Saladin and Richard the Lionheart were larger-than-life men who dazzled In some ways the capture of Jerusalem was Saladin's finest moment. In contrast to. Saladin Salah Ad-din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub - meaning Righteousness of Faith, Joseph , Saladin's relationship with Richard was one of mutual respect as well as. Richard the Lion heart led an English army, but he and his fellow kings failed to drive Arabs from Jerusalem. Saladin and Richard the Lionheart are two names.
The compassionate actions of Saladin toward peaceful people of different religions in times of conflict stand in stark contrast to the comments of several American politicians in the aftermath of the Paris Attacks.
Richard and Saladin: Warriors of the Third Crusade
Ben Carson called the Syrian refugees " rabid dogs. Mike Huckabee labeled Syrian refugees as " E. And thirty-one governors have said that Syrian refugees are not welcome in their states.
This virulent discourse has contributed to an increase in hate crimes against Muslims and their places of worship across the country. Saladin's levelheaded actions extend to the battlefield and exemplify how the West should respond to ISIS in a complex Syrian context. Saladin fulfilled his vow to execute Raymond as punishment for his slaughter of Muslim emissaries and pilgrims, during a period of truce between the Muslims and Crusaders. King Guy feared for his life after witnessing the execution, but Saladin spared his life saying" However, we must not punish those who are not responsible.
Can we not find the humanity within ourselves to differentiate between orphans and terrorists, widows and barbarians? Saladin is known for having a greater interest in Islamic studies than military training, and the Islamic principles of warfare are reflected in his actions on the battlefield.
Yet, some scholars in the West quote the Quran out of context to argue that Islam is an inherently violent religion. These are the same decontextualized quotes the terrorists use to justify their actions. The Islamic tradition is a rich one that spans over years of practice in regions around the world. It includes a complex legal system with few black and white answers. The great scholars of Islam, like Imam al-Ghazali and Ibn Khaldun, did not open the Quran and declare, "Well, it says fight the disbeliever; go ahead and kill.
It was this Islam that informed Saladin's actions.
The actions of Saladin and his interaction with the Christians also call into question the notion that the West and Islam are entangled in a "clash of civilizations. When Richard fell sick, Saladin sent him his own doctor to speed his recovery.
When Richard needed to return home to consolidate power in the middle of the Third Crusade, Saladin negotiated a fair treaty and earned a place beside Plato and Aristotle in Dante's Divine Comedy. As Percy Newby has said"The Crusaders were fascinated by a Muslim leader who possessed virtues they assumed were Christian.
Later, the author of the Itinerarium writes that Saladin is a "timid creature, like a frightened hare. Following the conclusion of his truce with Richard, however, Saladin seems to become a different person in the Itinerarium. Not only do Richard and Saladin converse amicably through messengers, but Saladin also shows Hubert Walter, bishop of Salisbury "much honor and fulfilled all his requests" when the bishop visits Jerusalem. Saladin "enjoin[s] his servants to show the bishop and his people every kindness.
Hubert even tells Saladin that if there were any way in which to combine "[Saladin's] virtues with those of King Richard, and share them out between [them] so that both The Itinerarium's description of Saladin becomes much more positive and essentially the direct opposite of what it had been prior to the truce between Richard and Saladin.
Ambroise's description of Saladin in his Crusade is much more balanced throughout the work, although his view of Saladin is definitely not always positive. He also describes the way in which Saladin honors the safe-conduct of Christian pilgrims and even honors them, as well as the way in which he courteously receives Hubert Walter. Also, there do not seem to be quite so many negative comments, and such comments do not seem quite as severe as those found in the Itinerarium.
Interestingly, within the Crusade Ambroise relates an episode similar to the stick of God analogy in the Itinerarium. This is perhaps the only explanation that Christians can come up with for why God would allow the Christians to be removed from Jerusalem. After all, according to the Christian view, God wants Christians to hold the city.
Saladin's role as punisher may partially explain his dichotomous portrayal within these two Christian primary sources. On the one hand, there is a figure that represents and is responsible for displacing the Christians from Jerusalem, but on the other there is a figure with many positive characteristics.
Although many of these characteristics come through in the works, Saladin is still the enemy and still a powerful figure who believes in an opposing faith. Following the conclusion of the truce with Richard, Saladin becomes less of a threat and less of an enemy, and he is viewed a great deal more positively. Of course, some of the negativity surrounding Saladin might also be attributed to biases on the parts of the Christian authors, especially since it can be argued that Richard is in effect the hero of their works.
If the Itinerarium and Ambroise's Crusade seem somewhat confused in their portrayal of Saladin, they are very clear and almost completely positive in their descriptions of Richard, noting many positive characteristics. According to the Itinerarium, Richard is generous and "delighted all his subjects with his actions and his incomparable superiority.
He has "the valour of Hector, the heroism of Achillies, he was not inferior to Alexander, nor less valiant than Roland[, and] After all, his "magnificent deeds overshadowed all others, no matter how glorious. Considering the previous descriptions of Richard in the Itinerarium and the Crusade, it might seem that Richard was considered to be perfect within both of these Christian sources.
What We Can Learn From Saladin
Although this is very nearly the case, they both are at least somewhat critical of Richard's rashness. In the Itinerarium, there is a description of a time in which Saladin's men almost capture Richard in an ambush because he is traveling nearly unaccompanied. Directly following this episode, some of Richard's household "scolded him over his frequent recklessness and cautioned him against such behavior.
Muslim sources seem to agree with this generally positive assessment of Richard. In fact, many Muslim authors shower "warm praise Although there might be some hints of equality in the Christian sources such as when Hubert Walter comments in the Itinerarium that anyone that possessed a combination of Richard and Saladin's qualities would also possess unparalleled magnificencethere does not seem to be anything to suggest that Saladin might in some way actually be better than Richard.Third Crusade to the Holy Land - Saladin vs. Richard
For example, he writes that Richard was "courageous, energetic, and daring in combat Muslim sources describe the positive characteristics of Richard in much the same way that Christian sources do, but how do they describe Saladin? Much of what they have to say is positive. Saladin's faith seems to be of prime importance, since the section dealing with this topic is the first to appear in the biography.
A ruler of "firm faith", Saladin "venerated deeply the laws of the Faith. He was a very just ruler, "just, benign, merciful, [and] quick to help the weak against the strong.
King Richard the Lionheart & Saladin - Top 25 Political Icons - TIME
Although there is this respect and praise for Saladin, there is also criticism. Ibn al-Athir writes that Saladin "never evinced real firmness in his decisions" and that when he laid siege to a city, "if the defenders resisted for some time, he would give up and abandon the siege But the criticism does not end here. Ibn al-Athir also criticizes the way in which after he had seized the strongholds at Acre, Ascalon, and Jerusalem, Saladin had "allowed the enemy soldiers and knights to seek refuge in Tyre", making the city "virtually impregnable.
It is likely that much of this has to do with the way in which Saladin kept losing battles with Richard, such as at Acre and Arsuf, even though the overarching confrontation between the two figures ended in a truce.
Saladin's major military accomplishments were all won prior to the beginning of the Third Crusade; during the crusade he made mistakes, while Richard won victories.
Despite their differences in faith, as well as other individual differences between Richard and Saladin, both have shared a legacy in that they have been considered exemplars of chivalry. In his book about William Marshal, an exemplar of chivalry, Georges Duby defines and discusses chivalric obligations, and he identifies four primary obligations centering on loyalty, proper conduct as a warrior, courtoisie courtesyand largesse generosity.
One Muslim source does make it seem as though Richard had only been able to secure surrender from the Muslims at Acre after promising to spare them their lives, but as previously mentioned, the actual reasons behind Richard's execution of his prisoners, as well as what exactly happened, can be and is contested.
Although these sources contain hardly any information about Richard and Saladin's loyalty and courtesy, they provide quite a few references to their conduct as warriors and their generosity. Personal valor is emphasized in the case of both Richard and Saladin.
The author of the Itinerarium describes the way in which Richard "pursued the Turks with singular ferocity There is also a focus on Saladin's conduct as a warrior and his personal valor. In the Christian sources, Ambroise mentions Saladin's bravery. There are also references to the generosity necessary for a chivalric knight in the descriptions of both Richard and Saladin in these sources.
One example lies in the Itinerarium, where Richard is said to have been conferred with "a generous character As an example from a Christian source, Ambroise also describes Saladin as "generous". For example, he is described as "the flower of virtue and the crown of knighthood. Even though Saladin is not as directly connected as Richard within these primary sources, both are portrayed in later works as chivalric figures.