Swahili | jingle-bells.info
The Swahili people (Waswahili) are an amalgamated Kiswahili-speaking Bantu ethnic group and culture found in the eastern African Great Lakes region and in Comoros. . In arranged marriage the groom families knows and have . Later it spread to the interior after when the Portuguese were. There were a range of interactions between the Swahili city states and people of Zanj (a generic term for the people of East Africa) that was. They have forged extensive economic, political, and social ties with Middle Eastern Muslims. Hundreds of Swahili people left for the Middle East after the Zanzibar . Many KiSwahili lyrics are double entendres (having double meanings) that . there are Swahili settlements in the far African interior near Lake Tanganyika.
Their traditional Bantu lineage names were gradually abandoned and substituted with Arabic family names e. Wapate became Batawiynanew origin legends and social structures were imagined into folklores, and the societal structures were adopted from Persian and Arab settlers from nearby societies in Asia. A French visitor to this Sultanate, named Morice estimated that about a tenth of the population was Swahili-speaking Arabs and Shirazi, a third were free Africans, and the remainder were African slaves.
Barbar Bilad al Barbar; "land of the Berbers" in the Horn of Africawhich was inhabited by Berbers and stretched southward to the Shebelle river; Zanj Ard al-Zanj; "country of the blacks"located immediately below that up to around Tanga or the southern part of Pemba island; Sofala Ard Sufalaextending from Pemba to an unknown terminus, but probably around the Limpopo river; and Waq-Waq, the shadowy land south thereof.
However, earlier geographers make no mention of Sofala.
Arab Slave Trade - Islam and Africa
The texts written after twelfth century also call the island of Madagascar al-Qumr, and include it as a part of Waq-Waq. Zeila 's two- mihrab Masjid al-Qiblatayn dates to the 7th century, and is the oldest mosque in the city. Yaqut and Ibn Said described the city as another important center of Islam, which actively traded with the Swahili-speaking African region to the south of it. The thirteenth century texts also mention mosques and individuals with names such as "al-Shirazi" and "al-Sirafi" and a clan called "Sirafi at Merca", suggestive of an early Persian presence in the area.
Of the loot, "a fifth was set aside for the family of the Prophet, and all distributed in the manner prescribed by the Koran". The late 19th century document claims that Persians and Arabs were sent by governors of the Persian Gulf region to conquer and colonize the trading coast of East Africa.
It also mentions the establishment of the Shirazi dynasty by Madagan and Halawani Arab merchants, whose identity and roots are unclear. Morton, a critical assessment of the Book of the Zanj indicates that much of the document consists of deliberate falsifications by its author Fathili bin Omari, which were intended to invalidate the established oral traditions of local Bantu groups.
The Hinna ceremony takes place 3 days before the wedding, the ceremony is attended by the bride friends and age mates as a farewell party to the bride the bride is applied hinna the occasion is marked by songs, and dance. Snacks and soft drinks are served to the visitors.
During Shinda lunch is made for the family gathering and soft drinks served. The occasion is meant to bring togetherness in the family and close relation. Snack mahamrisviazivyarojo, kitoweo meat or chicken and juice will be served. Taarab dance and modern songs mark the occasion.
The hall beautification and design is made by professionals. A parked box of snacks and soft drinks is serves to the guest as they enter.
Taarab music played and dance for about 3hours to be precise and at The exercise takes between an hour and two hours. The groom takes her bride home escorted by close relatives. Swahili groom and his bride,Zanzibar Island.
Ni la zima mke kuvaa leso mbili wakati wakulala na mumewe Mume ni avae leso kiunoni Kikaii na upambaji wa milazakishellasikuyanikkah tuna songanyelemviringoamamkilinahukuzimetatiliwanamuyasmininausoni tuna Muyasmini, vilua, udi, manukato, mafutamazurinausafizaidiyamkekimwili, kinyumbanahatainjeyanyumbanimuhimu.
The groom and bride will go to bed while both relatives wait for the answer from the groom.
Shirazi people - Wikipedia
It the bride turns out to be a virgin the bed sheet is send to the bride family and a celebration for both the family. Manukatoyawaswahili — vilua, muasumini, roses. The marriages of firstborn patrician daughters are monogamous although concubinage was frequentand divorce has been rare; all other marriages have often been polygynous, and divorce has been and is extremely common, as high as 90 percent in some areas.
Today Swahili women undergo initiation without physical operation at puberty, in order to be permitted to marry. Boys nowadays are not initiated but are circumcised in infancy; in the past there was more elaborate male initiation.
Both boys' and girls' socialization after infancy takes the form of Islamic education in the Quranic schools attached to mosques, and consists largely of moral and theological learning based on knowledge of the Quran, although instruction in poetry and music has been an important part of their training to become pious Muslims.
Today most children also attend nonreligious schools in order to acquire "Western" education, but religious education retains its central place, and overtly Christian schools are totally avoided. Because of the interactions that ensued with the Arab and Somali proselytizers, Islam emerged as a unifying force on the coast and helped to form a unique Swahili identity. On the coastal section of East Africa, a mixed Bantu community gradually developed through contact with Muslim Arab and Persian traders.
The Swahili culture that emerged from these exchanges evinces many Arab and Islamic influences not seen in traditional Bantu culture, as do the many Afro-Arab members of the Bantu Swahili people. The Afro-Arab Swahili people in turn introduced the Islamic faith to the hinterland. The Swahili follow a very strict and orthodox form of Islam. For example, Eid-ul-Fitr, the holiday marking the end of Ramadan, is widely celebrated in areas where the Swahili form a majority. In addition to more orthodox practices, the Swahili also are known for their use of divination, which has adopted some syncretic features from underlying traditional indigenous beliefs.
In addition to orthodox beliefs in djinn, many Swahili men wear protective amulets around their necks, which contain verses from the Koran. Often the diviner incorporates verses from the Qu'ran into treatments for certain diseases. On occasion, he instructs a patient to soak a piece of paper containing verses of the Qu'ran in water. With this ink infused water, literally containing the word of Allah, the patient will then wash his body or drink it to cure himself of his affliction.
It is only prophets and teachers of Islam who are permitted to become medicine men among the Swahili. Early history of islam The earliest concrete evidence of Islam and Muslims in eastern Africa is a mosque foundation in Lamu where gold, silver and copper coins dated AD were found during an excavation in The oldest intact building in eastern Africa is a functioning mosque at Kizimkazi in southern Zanzibar Island dated AD When Ibn Batuta of Morocco visited the East African coastlands inall the way down to the present border between Mozambique and South Africa, most of the coastal settlements were Muslim, and Arabic was the common literary and commercial language spoken all over the Indian Ocean - Batuta worked as a Kadhi, Supreme Muslim Jurist, in the Maldive Islands for one year using Arabic as his working language.
It certainly did not spread through conquest or settlement, but remained an urban and coastal phenomenon for quite long. Later it spread to the interior after when the Portuguese were pushed beyond the Ruvuma River that forms the present Tanzania-Mozambique border.
It would be erroneous to consider Islamic practices in eastern Africa as Arabic practices, and associate Islam with Arabs, since Islam did not arabise East Africans; on the contrary, Arab immigrants, Islam and Islamic practices got africanised or swahilised, thereby developing Islam as an indigenous African religion!
This is also linguistically evidenced by the fact that Arab immigrants became Swahili speaking, adopted the Swahili dress, food and eating habits and other cultural elments. Circa In recent times there has been many Swahili people who have also taken to Christian faith. They also construct miniature, painted replicas of the boats dhows used for fishing.
Young boys play with these at the shore. Women use brown colored henna to paint complex flower designs on their hands and feet up to the knees as preparation for attending a wedding.
The color, which stains the skin and nails, lasts for several weeks. Band members play keyboards, flutes, brass instruments, and drums to accompany singers. Many KiSwahili lyrics are double entendres having double meanings that hint at romantic love. They dance chakacha, which resembles belly dancing, and also lelemama, a very subtle dance with tiny hand movements.
KiSwahili oral literature includes songs, sayings, stories, and riddles. The main written form is poetry. KiSwahili poems include long epics, prayers, and meditations on many subjects. These were wrapped around their waists and upper bodies and draped over their shoulders and heads. Swahili girls in traditional dress Men wore a striped cloth kikoi around the waist that hung to the knees. As a mark of being Muslim some men sported small white caps with elaborate tan embroidery.
Dressing well but modestly is highly valued.
African Quotes: 108 Popular African Sayings that Will Get You Thinking
Women wear Western-style dresses in many colors, patterns, and fabrics. Outside the house, women wear a black, floor-length cloak with an attached veil, called a buibui. On Fridays the Muslim day of restor other religious occasions, they wear long, white caftans. Shorts are worn only by children. Rice, the staple, is cooked with coconut milk and served with tomato-based meat, bean, or vegetable stews.
Meals incorporate locally-available vegetables egg-plant, okra, and spinachfruits mangoes, coconuts, pineapplesand spices cloves, cardamon, hot pepper. Fish is also central to the diet. Chicken and goat meat are popular for holiday meals. Sweet tea with milk see accompanyig recipe is served several times a day.
Swahili, like all Muslims, are prohibited from eating pork or drinking alcohol. The members of one clan from northern Kenya observe a taboo on eating fish. For Muslims, the most important holidays are religious. Eid al-Fitr marks the end of the month of Ramadan. Eid al-Hajj celebrates the yearly pilgrimage to Mecca.
Each Eid is celebrated by praying, visiting relatives and neighbors, and eating special foods and sweets. During the month of Ramadan, Swahili along with all other Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset.
Maulidi, or the Prophet Muhammad's birthday, is widely celebrated by Muslims. Birthday parties, increasingly popular, include eating cake, disco dancing, and opening presents. Graduation ceremonies mark a young person's educational progress. Swahili mothers carrying their babies.
People who know each other exchange a string of greetings inquiring about the health of family members and the latest news.
Children greet an elder with respect by kissing his or her hand. Tanzanian Swahili girl coming out from coranic school, Zanzibar Tanzania. Men and women are not permitted to mix freely. Dating is generally non-existent. Most people pursue their daily activities with others of the same gender. Women are encouraged to congregate at home, while men spend time in public places.
They can make decisions for wives and daughters and compel them to behave properly to preserve the family's honor. But Swahili women also wield considerable power in the daily life of the family.
The average number of children in each family has declined from as many as fourteen children early in the twentieth century to three or four children by the late s. Country-towns are divided into moieties, and these into wards or quarters. The wards, composed of clusters of cognatically related kin, are the corporate and landholding units.
Marriage is preferred between cross and parallel cousins; it is seen largely as a way to retain rights over land within the small kin group. Authority is held by senior men and women, and all local groups are regarded as equal in rank. Within the Stone-towns, the main social groups are in most cases patrilineal subclans and lineages. The clans are distributed among the coastal towns and even in southern Arabiafrom which immigrant origin is often claimed. These towns are likewise divided into moieties and constituent wards, the former once providing indigenous forms of government; their structural opposition is expressed in fighting at certain rituals, football matches, and poetry competitions.
The corporate groups are the lineages, segments of subclans, that, in the past, acted as business houses and owned the large permanent houses that are so marked a feature of these towns. The subclans are ranked, position depending largely on antiquity of claimed immigration and settlement, as well as on commercial wealth and standing. Members of these mercantile lineages are known as "patricians. In the Stone-towns, the preferred marriage forms vary.
For firstborn daughters, they should be between close paternal parallel cousins. Bride-wealth and dowry are both transferred, as are residential rights not full ownership, which is vested in the lineage for the daughter in her lineage house, marriage thus being uxorilocal. Marriages of later-born daughters are more usually with cross cousins, often in neighboring Stone-towns so as to make and retain useful commercial ties.
Stone-town weddings are traditionally elaborate and costly, the bride needing to show her virginity and so her purity, which reflects upon the honor and reputation of her husband.
Country-town weddings are basically similar but less elaborate and less ritualized. Divorce is permitted under Islamic law: The marriages of firstborn patrician daughters are monogamous although concubinage was frequentand divorce has been rare; all other marriages have often been polygynous, and divorce has been and is extremely common, as high as 90 percent in some areas.
Today Swahili women undergo initiation without physical operation at puberty, in order to be permitted to marry. Boys nowadays are not initiated but are circumcised in infancy; in the past there was more elaborate male initiation. Both boys' and girls' socialization after infancy takes the form of Islamic education in the Quranic schools attached to mosques, and consists largely of moral and theological learning based on knowledge of the Quran, although instruction in poetry and music has been an important part of their training to become pious Muslims.
Today most children also attend nonreligious schools in order to acquire "Western" education, but religious education retains its central place, and overtly Christian schools are totally avoided. Sociopolitical Organization Swahili towns have traditionally been autonomous, many at one time being ruled by kings and queens. Lamu Town, ruled by an oligarchy, was an exception.
Country-town local government remains largely in the hands of small, indigenous government organs, known as "the Four Men" and similar titles, representing constituent wards. The Swahili patricians kept and traded in slaves; the Country-towns did neither. Slaves, numbering between 25 percent and 50 percent of the total population, were obtained from the interior from indigenous rulers and used as trade commodities, for house- and fieldwork, and as concubines.
Slavery was abolished under the British in in Zanzibar and Tanganyika and in in Kenya. Its abolition brought the traditional mercantile economy largely to an end.