Romanov Family - HISTORY
In January , Tsar Nicholas II ruled Russia while Bolshevik In the tsar's popularity was ebbing due to continuing domestic problems as well as an up in the shadow of his father, the bearded, burly Alexander III. . Soldiers had their own committees, which supervised relations with the officers. When he succeeded his father—Czar Alexander II—Nicholas II had little the disease, which was sometimes referred to as “the royal disease. Nicholas had three brothers, two of whom, the future emperor Alexander I and Maria, on the contrary, remained formal and cold in her relationship to the and Nicholas questioned the legal handling of the whole issue and the reaction in.
As Germany and Austria-Hungary had mutual defense treaties in place, this led almost immediately to a German mobilization and declaration of war, and the outbreak of World War I. The outbreak of war on August 1,found Russia grossly unprepared, yet an immediate attack was ordered against the German province of East Prussia.
The Germans mobilized there with great efficiency and completely defeated the two Russian armies which had invaded. The Russian armies, however, later had considerable success against both the Austro-Hungarian armies and against the forces of the Ottoman Empire.
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Gradually a war of erosion set in on the vast Eastern Front, where the Russians were facing the combined forces of the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires, and they suffered staggering losses. Nicholas, feeling that it was his duty, and that his personal presence would inspire his troops, decided to lead his army directly. He assumed the role of commander-in-chief after dismissing his cousin from that position, the highly respected and experienced Grand Duke Nicholas, following the loss of the Russian Kingdom of Poland in September His efforts to oversee the war left domestic issues essentially in the hands of Alexandra.
Being of German heritage, she was unpopular and the Duma was constantly calling for political reforms. Political unrest continued throughout the war. Cut off from public opinion, Nicholas did not understand how suspicious the common people were of his wife, who was also the victim of destructive rumors about her dependence on Grigori Rasputin.
Nicholas had refused to censor the press, and wild rumors and accusations about Alexandra and Rasputin appeared almost daily. Angry at the damage that Rasputin's influence was doing to Russia's war effort and to the monarchy, a group of nobles, led by Prince Felix Yusupov, murdered Rasputin on December 16, Revolution and abdication The government's inability to maintain constant supplies and an active economy over a prolonged period of warfare led to mounting national hardship.
The army's initial failure to maintain the temporary military successes up to June led to renewed strikes and riots in the following winter. With Nicholas away at the front inauthority appeared to collapse, and St.
Petersburg was left in the hands of strikers and mutinying conscript soldiers. He issued the following statement: In the days of the great struggle against the foreign enemies, who for nearly three years have tried to enslave our fatherland, the Lord God has been pleased to send down on Russia a new heavy trial.
Internal popular disturbances threaten to have a disastrous effect on the future conduct of this persistent war. The destiny of Russia, the honor of our heroic army, the welfare of the people and the whole future of our dear fatherland demand that the war should be brought to a victorious conclusion whatever the cost.
Nicholas II of Russia - Wikipedia
The cruel enemy is making his last efforts, and already the hour approaches when our glorious army together with our gallant allies will crush him. In these decisive days in the life of Russia, We thought it Our duty of conscience to facilitate for Our people the closest union possible and a consolidation of all national forces for the speedy attainment of victory.
In agreement with the Imperial Duma, We have thought it well to renounce the Throne of the Russian Empire and to lay down the supreme power. We direct Our brother to conduct the affairs of state in full and inviolable union with the representatives of the people in the legislative bodies on those principles which will be established by them, and on which He will take an inviolable oath.
In the name of Our dearly beloved homeland, We call on Our faithful sons of the fatherland to fulfill their sacred duty to the fatherland, to obey the tsar in the heavy moment of national trials, and to help Him, together with the representatives of the people, to guide the Russian Empire on the road to victory, welfare, and glory.
May the Lord God help Russia! However, Grand Duke Michael declined to accept the throne, which then theoretically fell vacant, pending a decision on the next rightful heir. Contrary to popular belief, Michael never abdicated, as he was never formally crowned. The abdication of Nicholas II and the subsequent revolution brought three centuries of the Romanov dynasty's rule to an end. Attempting to remove them from the vicinity of the capital and so from possible harm, the Kerensky government moved them east to Tobolsk, in Siberia in August The tsar and his family, including Botkin, Kharitonov and Trupp were executed at 2: In view of the fact that your relatives continue their offensive against Soviet Russia, the Presidium of the Ural Regional Soviet has decided to sentence you to death.
According to Yurovsky, Nicholas II cried: Lord, oh my God! I can't understand you.Documentary: Last of the Tsars - Nicholas II & Alexandra - Part 1
The bodies were disposed in a truck which Yurovsky ordered at midnight and taken to the forest to be disposed. The execution was covered up as a disappearance for a while. He, in turn, was more concerned with family issues and was seemingly bewildered by major affairs of state. Nicholas had inherited a nation undergoing enormous changes. Whether Russia would have experienced serious social unrest under Alexander III is open to speculation.
Nicholas II (1868-1918)
However, the industrialisation of Russia was starting to create serious social problems in the cities which the authorities were not dealing with — and probably could not deal with. The speed of industrialisation, financed by French and other European money, had developed a momentum of its own. Therefore, Nicholas had inherited, ina nation that may well have rebelled without the input of Lenin and other revolutionaries. What would Alexander have done in such a situation?
At least he would have been decisive even if his decisions may have been wrong. Nicholas simply could not be decisive. His position was not helped by the fact that his wife had a series of favourites who used their position to influence him via his wife. The influence of her most favourite was a disaster for Russia — Gregory Rasputin.
The three most senior government ministers under Nicholas who dominated Russia were Pobedonestev, Witte and Plehve. Count Witte was foreign minister. He had alienated many in government because he did not come from old landed stock — he was a nouveau riche who had made his money as a railway entrepreneur. As a man who had been born into a low middle class family, his rise to power had been spectacular, even if it had brought with it jealousy within the royal court.
However, his business acumen had led to large sums of foreign capital being invested in Russia. He also got foreign loans for the government.
Nicholas II of Russia
Plehve was a hard-liner. By July, the White army was advancing on Yekaterinburg. Local authorities were ordered to prevent a rescue of the Romanovs, and after a secret meeting of the Yekaterinburg Soviet, the imperial family was sentenced to death. On the night of July 16,the family was ordered to dress and go down to the cellar of the Ipatiev House where they were lined up as if posing for a family photograph.
There they were shot by firing squad and bayoneted to death by Bolshevik troops. The remains of the family were discovered in a mass grave in the Ural Mountains in Subsequent DNA testing confirmed the identities of the Nicholas, Alexandra and three of their daughters.
The remains of Alexei and one of his sisters remained a mystery until when a second grave was discovered near the larger mass grave. The grave contained the remains of two partially burned skeletons, which subsequent DNA testing showed to belong to Alexei, and one of his sisters, likely Anastasia or Maria. The legend persisted for nearly a century, inspiring numerous books and films.
Over the years, dozens of women came forward, claiming to be the Romanov princess.