Rare, Endangered and Threatened (RET) climbers of Southern Western Ghats, India
Which one is the biggest National Park in India by area wise (A) Namdapha National Q The Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats meet at (A) Nilgiri Hills. Situated in a key position between the Western and Eastern Ghats, the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve boasts of a wide variety of fauna. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve; Nallamala Forest; Nagarhole National park area and Tiger Reserve along the Western Ghats in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located in the hill ranges of Eastern Ghats in southern Andhra Pradesh.
It represents a hilly area meeting the mountain range of the Eastern Ghats in the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Forest. Present study covers seven districts viz. Vegetation can broadly be classified into two major categories, namely Vegetation of the interior plains and Vegetation of the hills and mountains and each vegetation category may be further divided into various forest types of the present study area viz.
Methodology Rare, Endangered and Threatened plants were recorded from the present study area. The plant collection and identification of the RET listed climbing species were selected from different hills forest of the Southern Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu from to The collected specimens were made into herbarium for identification with standard traditional method. The primary identification of plant specimens done with help of local and regional Floras [14, 18, 19] and the conformity of identification compared with authentic herbarium deposited Botanical Survey of India, Southern Circle, Coimbatore.
Melagiris – Secret Jewel Of The Eastern Ghats
The threatened status of the plants was confirmed with IUCN Ret list and also the help of using available RET data books and standard publications such as [28,40]. The botanical information was made into a database consisting of binomial name, family, mode of dispersal, source of collection, morphology of useful part and conservation status. Result and Discussion A total of climbing plant species belonging to genera and 41 families were identified from different forest types identified in the Southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu.
The taxonomic diversity of lianas was relatively high in the tropical forest of India. Many studies [15, 16, 25, 27 ] carried out in different tropical forests have reported similar results.
Out of the species, 33 taxa were collected under RET category Table 1. Most species rich family was Convolvulaceae 9-species followed by Asclepiadaceae 5-species Lianas families of Asian forest are dominated by Apocynaceae, Fabaceae, Anonaceae, Combrataceae, Loganiaceae, Rutaceae etc. The dominance of liana families by Apocynaceae, and Fabaceae in wide-ranging tropical forests  is also evident in this study.
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Silva Manso, Ceropegia mannarana Umam. Even though the species Gloriosa superba L. Some of the rare species, Celastrus paniculata Willd. The present study found that some identified taxa occur only from few samples and have a narrow distribution. It indicates the need to carry out further studies on the flora of climbers in Western Ghats. The species Cucumis dipsaeceus Enherb. These species require site-specific conservation strategies.
The present study recorded different climbing mechanisms. The species of the families Convolvulaceae, Menispemaceae and Combrataceae climb by twining around the host plants, tendril climber is the second dominant mechanisms of the present study. Similar studies  were carried out in different tropical forests.
In the area of research, many species are highly exploited for either curative or some other purposes. Out of 33 RET plants, local people were observed to use 15 plants for curative purposes species viz. They are using these plants to cure skin diseases, cough, fever, headache, diabetes, rheumatism, asthma, dysentery and poison bites etc.Difference between Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats, BA, MA
Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb, Passiflora leschenaultii DC. Of the total invasive species Ipomoea cairica L. These invasive species are ready colonizer in disturbed areas and cause considerable ecological damages to natural areas.
The present study observed that some species fruits of climbers produced by the lianas for sustaining their population Solena amplexicaulis Lam. Gandhi, Smilax zeylanica L. Therefore, imprudent utilization of lianas could have significant impacts on the forest diversity.
The forest of the southern Western Ghats are prone to diverse distribution like invasion of alien species, illegal timber extraction, collection of non-timber forest products, human settlement, removal of minerals, hill cultivation, cattle grazing and tourism. An urgent requisite for developing practical conservation strategies for RET plants in the Southern Western Ghats may lead their effective protection.
Conclusion The present study suggests that RET species could gives vital information about the niches and amplitudes of rare endemic, endangered and threatened species in a regional scale. This report can help in identifying areas and habitats of rich concentration of these species so that critical habitat and habitat sites would get priority for conservation. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors' contributions As conducted research on Taxonomic research field work and Dr.
AR was Research supervisor, designed the study.
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve: Home to a new breed of bears
Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Liana species richness abundance and relationship with trees in the Bobiri forest reserve Ghana: Ahamedhullah M, Nayar MP. Endemic Plants of the Indian Region. Botanical Survey of India Calcutta.
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Ahmedullah M, Nayar MP. Endemic plants of the Indian Region, Peninsular India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci.
Balachandran N, Rajendiran A. Diversity and distribution of angiospermic climbers In Tropical dry evergreen forest of Tamil Nadu India. Brummitt N, Nic Lughadha E. Where's hot and where's not. Liana communities in three tropical forest types in Xishuangbanna South-West China. J Trop Forest Sci. Govt, of India Press; Global biodiversity hotspots in India: Structure and biomass of four lowland Neotropical forests. Liana habitat associations and community structure in a Bornean lowland tropical forest.
Flora of the Presidency of Madras. The Distribution and Evolution of Climbing Plants. The Biology of Vines. Cambridge University Press; Gentry AH, Dodson C. Contribution of non-trees to species richness of a tropical rain forest.
Around noon we walked back to our vehicle parked on the highway leading to Anchetty town. Doddahalla and a myriad other streams originating in the beautiful Melagiris mountain range of the Eastern Ghats feed the great Cauvery river that drains much of south India.
A vast swathe of multiple-use reserved forests in Tamil Nadu administered by the Dharmapuri and Erode Forest Divisions also run contiguous to this forested belt, which extends from Hosur and Bannerghatta in the east all the way to the Moyar valley to the west, where it meets the Western Ghats. It is one of the largest continuous forest blocks in India, with huge potential for tiger and elephant conservation.
As has been pointed out down the decades, protecting forests in the name of such megafauna ends up benefiting a diversity of smaller life forms. In the Eastern Ghats, this includes the grizzled giant squirrel, chousingha or four-horned antelope and ratel, among many other species. Road to Resurrection Despite the hilly and rugged terrain, large and small settlements alike have found sustenance through marginal cultivation that ended up perforating critical habitats best suited to support large wild animals.
The process of bringing such verdant river valleys, undulating slopes and fertile grasslands under the plough also bequeathed both humans and wildlife with conflicts that do neither any good. The only areas left relatively untouched and available without disturbance to wild species today are inaccessible portions of the rugged hills and steep slopes considered unfit for cultivation.
But tragically, of late, powerful politicians have made inroads into this ecologically fragile area in search of profit from the seemingly insatiable demand for granite and black stones from rapidly growing urban settlements. Taking advantage of the tiniest of loopholes in the law often breaking lawshilltops located just outside the reserved forests have been plundered by quarries.
Such quarries do not merely destroy forests and wildlife, but also make explosives and weaponry available to poachers who predictably use this to decimate the already beleaguered wildlife. As if this were not enough, roads and other linear intrusions created to facilitate such plunder ended up further fragmenting the troubled forests that are currently wilting under the joint assault by acute cattle grazing, forest fires and unsustainable biomass removal in the Melagiris.
Until a decade ago, the infamous forest brigand Veerappan had triggered administration responses that saw a permanent medley of paramilitary and police forces as a result of which most wild animals were in retreat. When the Veerappan saga ended, the region saw a phased withdrawal of the armed forces and slowly the biodiversity of the Eastern Ghats began to return.
In a move welcomed by all, the state Forest Departments of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu notified sanctuaries and tiger reserves such as Sathyamangalam and Biligirirangan Hills, where tigers and other wildlife have staged a remarkable recovery.
As far as the Hosur forests in the Melagiris are concerned, a step in the right direction began with the notification of about sq. In neighbouring Karnataka, the extension of the Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary south of Hosur and connecting reserved forests parcels near Kanakpura with the Bannerghatta National Park west of Hosur had already helped enliven the landscape. I was delighted with what I saw when I visited the Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary, where government and non-government agencies are working in sync.