Scale (music) - Wikipedia
In music theory, a scale is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch. The distance between two successive notes in a scale is called a scale step. Two notes can also be numbered in relation to each other: C and E create an interval of a third (in this case a major third); D and F also create a third. Now we have the beginning of a scale: C D E F G, and the notes aren't . relationship or consonance between the notes: "Harmony" simply. In music, a note is the pitch and duration of a sound, and also its representation in musical notation (♪, ♩). A note can also represent a pitch class. Notes are the building blocks of much written music: discretizations of Because of that, all notes with these kinds of relations can be grouped under the same pitch class.
While it is possible to construct equal temperament scale with any number of notes for example, the tone Arab tone systemthe most common number is 12, which makes up the equal-temperament chromatic scale.
In western music, a division into twelve intervals is commonly assumed unless it is specified otherwise. For the chromatic scale, the octave is divided into twelve equal parts, each semitone half-step is an interval of the twelfth root of two so that twelve of these equal half steps add up to exactly an octave.
With fretted instruments it is very useful to use equal temperament so that the frets align evenly across the strings.What is the Difference Between "Scale" and "Key"?
In the European music tradition, equal temperament was used for lute and guitar music far earlier than for other instruments, such as musical keyboards.
Because of this historical force, twelve-tone equal temperament is now the dominant intonation system in the Western, and much of the non-Western, world.
Equally tempered scales have been used and instruments built using various other numbers of equal intervals. The 19 equal temperamentfirst proposed and used by Guillaume Costeley in the 16th century, uses 19 equally spaced tones, offering better major thirds and far better minor thirds than normal semitone equal temperament at the cost of a flatter fifth.
The overall effect is one of greater consonance. Twenty-four equal temperamentwith twenty-four equally spaced tones, is widespread in the pedagogy and notation of Arabic music. However, in theory and practice, the intonation of Arabic music conforms to rational ratiosas opposed to the irrational ratios of equally tempered systems.
Transposition and modulation[ edit ] This section may be confusing or unclear to readers.
What are the frequencies of music notes?
In particular, transposition and modulation are different; first sentence introduces yet another term 'transform'; explanation then confuses all these. August Learn how and when to remove this template message Composers transform musical patterns by moving every note in the pattern by a constant number of scale steps: This process is called "scalar transposition" or "shifting to a new key" and can often be found in musical sequences and patterns.
It is D-E-F in Chromatic transposition.
Since the steps of a scale can have various sizes, this process introduces subtle melodic and harmonic variation into the music. In Western tonal music, the simplest and most common type of modulation or changing keys is to shift from one major key to another key built on the first key's fifth or dominant scale degree. In the key of C major, this would involve moving to the key of G major which uses an F.
Composers also often modulate to other related keys. In some Romantic music era pieces and contemporary music, composers modulate to "remote keys" that are not related to or close to the tonic.
An example of a remote modulation would be taking a song that begins in C major and modulating changing keys to F major. Jazz and blues[ edit ] See also: Jazz scales A hexatonic blues scale on C, ascending Through the introduction of blue notesjazz and blues employ scale intervals smaller than a semitone.
The blue note is an interval that is technically neither major nor minor but "in the middle", giving it a characteristic flavour. In blues, a pentatonic scale is often used. In jazz, many different modes and scales are used, often within the same piece of music. However the diatonic scale does not have a pure 5th between D and A, which the Pythagorean does. What about the interval of the third?
What are the frequencies of music notes?
Let us say then that the prime factor 5 in the major 3rd represents an addition to perception which brings in a feeling about reality; the major third is usually felt as a positive or joyful. The minor 3rd on the other hand, with the factor 3 in the numerator and the factor 5 present as its reciprocal, in the denominator, represents a tripling of perception, with the simultaneous presence of reality, of its representation in the mind, and of the absence of feeling about this duality, or expressed in another way, a receptivity to feeling, an empty space in which feeling can take place and is invited to come into it .
The rhetoric of the major 3rd is an expression of joy; the rhetoric of the minor 3rd is that of a question. The inner movement that is indicated in the minor third is an even deeper relaxation than that of the fourth as described above.
Historically, modernity developed as a reaction against certain absurdities that accumulated in a European culture that found its sanction in received truth; what happened in reaction to that in turn was the anti-modern attitude.
This seems to have been based on two factors: