study and to plan their instruction around the needs the students demonstrate. There are three main types of assessment. Formative assessment is a process that uses informal assessment strategies to gather information instruction and focus on discovering what students know and need to know about the end goal or. humanity and shared guardianship of the planet, help to create a better and more 3. Assessment is integral to all teaching and learning. It provides learners and Formative assessment engages students actively in the process of learning. assessment in the Diploma Programme will be based on clear criteria given by. Tombaugh was continuing the search for an elusive planet – planet X – that Lowell had As he flicked from one plate to the other, trying to see if something moved slightly . A: There are three new terms adopted as official definitions by the IAU. . The review process will be an evaluation, based on the best available data.
They do not contain any information that the students are supposed to be developing themselves. Instead, they contain descriptions like "Explanation of reasoning is clear and supported with appropriate details. They clarify for students how to approach the assignment for example, in solving the problem posed, I should make sure to explicitly focus on why I made the choices I did and be able to explain that. Therefore, over time general rubrics help students build up a concept of what it means to perform a skill well for example, effective problem solving requires clear reasoning that I can explain and support.
Can be used with many different tasks. Because general rubrics focus students on the knowledge and skills they are learning rather than the particular task they are completing, they offer the best method I know for preventing the problem of "empty rubrics" that will be described in Chapter 2. Good general rubrics will, by definition, not be task directions in disguise, or counts of surface features, or evaluative rating scales. Because general rubrics focus students on the knowledge and skills they are supposed to be acquiring, they can and should be used with any task that belongs to the whole domain of learning for those learning outcomes.
Of course, you never have an opportunity to give students all of the potential tasks in a domain—you can't ask them to write every possible essay about characterization, solve every possible problem involving slope, design experiments involving every possible chemical solvent, or describe every political takeover that was the result of a power vacuum.
These sets of tasks all indicate important knowledge and skills, however, and they develop over time and with practice.
Essay writing, problem solving, experimental design, and the analysis of political systems are each important skills in their respective disciplines. If the rubrics are the same each time a student does the same kind of work, the student will learn general qualities of good essay writing, problem solving, and so on.
If the rubrics are different each time the student does the same kind of work, the student will not have an opportunity to see past the specific essay or problem. The general approach encourages students to think about building up general knowledge and skills rather than thinking about school learning in terms of getting individual assignments done. Why use task-specific rubrics? Task-specific rubrics function as "scoring directions" for the person who is grading the work.
Because they detail the elements to look for in a student's answer to a particular task, scoring students' responses with task-specific rubrics is lower-inference work than scoring students' responses with general rubrics.
For this reason, it is faster to train raters to reach acceptable levels of scoring reliability using task-specific rubrics for large-scale assessment. Similarly, it is easier for teachers to apply task-specific rubrics consistently with a minimum of practice. General rubrics take longer to learn to apply well. However, the reliability advantage is temporary one can learn to apply general rubrics welland it comes with a big downside.
Obviously, task-specific rubrics are useful only for scoring. If students can't see the rubrics ahead of time, you can't share them with students, and therefore task-specific rubrics are not useful for formative assessment.
That in itself is one good reason not to use them except for special purposes. Task-specific rubrics do not take advantage of the most powerful aspects of rubrics—their usefulness in helping students to conceptualize their learning targets and to monitor their own progress.
Why are rubrics important? Rubrics are important because they clarify for students the qualities their work should have. This point is often expressed in terms of students understanding the learning target and criteria for success. For this reason, rubrics help teachers teach, they help coordinate instruction and assessment, and they help students learn. Rubrics help teachers teach To write or select rubrics, teachers need to focus on the criteria by which learning will be assessed.
This focus on what you intend students to learn rather than what you intend to teach actually helps improve instruction. The common approach of "teaching things," as in "I taught the American Revolution" or "I taught factoring quadratic equations," is clear on content but not so clear on outcomes. Without clarity on outcomes, it's hard to know how much of various aspects of the content to teach. Rubrics help with clarity of both content and outcomes.
Really good rubrics help teachers avoid confusing the task or activity with the learning goal, and therefore confusing completion of the task with learning. Rubrics help keep teachers focused on criteria, not tasks. I have already discussed this point in the section about selecting criteria.
Focusing rubrics on learning and not on tasks is the most important concept in this book. I will return to it over and over. It seems to be a difficult concept—or probably a more accurate statement is that focusing on tasks is so easy and so seductive that it becomes the path many busy teachers take.
Penny-wise and pound-foolish, such an approach saves time in the short run by sacrificing learning in the long run. Rubrics help coordinate instruction and assessment Most rubrics should be designed for repeated use, over time, on several tasks.
Students are given a rubric at the beginning of a unit of instruction or an episode of work. They tackle the work, receive feedback, practice, revise or do another task, continue to practice, and ultimately receive a grade—all using the same rubric as their description of the criteria and the quality levels that will demonstrate learning. This path to learning is much more cohesive than a string of assignments with related but different criteria. Rubrics help students learn The criteria and performance-level descriptions in rubrics help students understand what the desired performance is and what it looks like.
Effective rubrics show students how they will know to what extent their performance passes muster on each criterion of importance, and if used formatively can also show students what their next steps should be to enhance the quality of their performance. This claim is backed by research at all grade levels and in different disciplines.
Several studies of student-generated criteria demonstrate that students can participate in defining and describing the qualities their work should have.
Chapter 1. What Are Rubrics and Why Are They Important?
At the beginning of the year, most of the criteria were about process for example, the group members getting along with each other. In December, students were able to view examples of projects, and with continued brainstorming and discussion they began to see the importance of substantive criteria for example, the information contained in the project. By the end of the year, about half the criteria students chose were about process and half were about product.
This study shows us that students need to learn how to focus on learning—and, more important, that they can begin to do this as early as 1st grade. Andrade, Du, and Wang investigated the effects of having 3rd and 4th graders read a model written assignment, generate their own list of criteria, and use rubrics to self-assess the quality of the written stories and essays they then produced. A comparison group brainstormed criteria and self-assessed their drafts but did not use the rubric.
Controlling for previous writing ability, the group that used the rubrics for self-assessment wrote better overall, and specifically in the areas of ideas, organization, voice, and word choice. There were no differences between the groups in the areas of sentences and conventions, presumably areas of much previous drill for all young writers.
Andrade, Du, and Mycek replicated these findings with students in 5th, 6th, and 7th grade, except that the rubric group's writing was evaluated as having higher quality on all six criteria. Ross, Hoagaboam-Gray, and Rolheiser taught 5th and 6th grade students self-evaluation skills in mathematics, also using a method based on criteria. Their self-evaluation instruction involved four strategies: Controlling for previous problem-solving ability, students who self-assessed using criteria outscored a comparison group at solving mathematics problems.
Ross and Starling used the same four-component self-assessment training, based on criteria, with secondary students in a 9th grade geography class.
Students were learning to solve geography problems using global information systems GIS software, so the learning goals were about both accurate use of the software and applying it to real-world geography problems, including being able to explain their problem-solving strategies. Controlling for pretest computer self-efficacy known to be important in technology learningthe treatment group outscored a comparison group on three different measures: The largest difference was for the problem-solving explanations.
Hafner and Hafner investigated college biology students' use of rubrics for peer assessment and teacher assessment of a collaborative oral presentation. There were five criteria: Originally the rubric was developed and then modified with discussion and involvement of students. For the study, the same rubric was used for a required course assignment three years in a row.
The instructors were interested in finding out whether the information students gained from peer evaluation was accurate, whether it matched teacher input, and whether this accuracy was consistent across different years and classes. The short answer was yes. Students were able to accurately give feedback to their peers, their information matched that of their instructor, and this was the case for each class.
By the end of the Prague General Assembly, its members voted that the resolution B5 on the definition of a planet in the Solar System would be as follows: A celestial body that a is in orbit around the Sun, b has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium nearly round shape, and c has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit. A new distinct class of objects called dwarf planets was also decided on.
It was agreed that planets and dwarf planets are two distinct classes of objects. The first members of the dwarf planet category are Ceres, Pluto and Eris, formerly known as UB Eris was named after the IAU General Assembly in read more Eris is the Greek god of discord and strife, a name which the discoverer Mike Brown found fitting in the light of the academic commotion that followed its discovery.
The dwarf planet Pluto is recognised as an important prototype of a new class of Trans-Neptunian Objects. The IAU has put given a new denomination for these objects: Today the resolution remains in place and is a testament to the fluid nature of science and how our view of the Universe continues to evolve with changes made by observations, measurements and theory.
The latest observations On 14 JulyNASA's New Horizons spacecraft flew past Pluto, providing numerous imaging, spectroscopy, and in situ datasets that have dramatically altered our knowledge about Pluto and its system of five moons.
The images established that Pluto is larger than Eris and is the largest body in the Kuiper Belt. The images also revealed a remarkable landscape containing a variety of landforms, including broad plains, mountain ranges several kilometres high, and evidence for volcanoes.
Pluto's surface is unusual for its diversity of surface compositions and colours. Some regions are as bright as snow and others are as dark as charcoal. Colour imaging and composition spectroscopy revealed a highly complex distribution of surface ices, including nitrogen, carbon monoxide, water, and methane, as well as their chemical byproducts produced by radiolysis.
It has also been determined that some surfaces on Pluto are completely free of visible craters, indicating that they have been modified or created in the recent past. Other surfaces are heavily cratered and appear to be extremely old. No new satellites were detected, nor were rings. Small satellites Hydra and Nix have brighter surfaces than expected. These results raise fundamental questions about how a small, cold planet can remain active over the age of the Solar System.
They demonstrate that dwarf planets can be every bit as scientifically interesting as planets. Equally important is that all three major Kuiper belt bodies visited by spacecraft so far — Pluto, Charon, and Triton — are more different than similar, bearing witness to the potential diversity awaiting the exploration of their realm.
What is the origin of the word planet? The word planet comes from the Greek word for "wanderer", meaning that planets were originally defined as objects that moved in the night sky with respect to the background of fixed stars.
What Are Rubrics and Why Are They Important?
Why is there a need for a new definition for the word planet? Modern science provides much more information than the simple fact that objects orbiting the Sun appear to move with respect to the background of fixed stars. For example, recent new discoveries have been made of objects in the outer regions of our Solar System that have sizes comparable with and larger than Pluto.
Historically Pluto has been recognised as the ninth planet. Thus these discoveries have rightfully called into question whether or not the newly found Trans-Neptunian Objects should also be considered as new planets. How did astronomers reach a consensus for a new definition of planet? The world's astronomers, under the auspices of the International Astronomical Union, deliberated on a new definition for the word planet for nearly two years.
Continued evolution of the definition through debate and further discussion allowed a final consensus and vote. What new terms are used in the official IAU definition?
There are three new terms adopted as official definitions by the IAU. In plain language, what is the new definition of planet? A planet is an object in orbit around the Sun that is large enough massive enough to have its self-gravity pull itself into a round or near-spherical shape.
In addition a planet orbits in a clear path around the Sun. If any object ventures near the orbit of a planet, it will either collide with the planet, and thereby be accreted, or be ejected into another orbit. What is the exact wording of the official IAU proposed definition of planet?
A planet is a celestial body that a is in orbit around the Sun, b has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium nearly round shape, and c has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.
Pluto and the Solar System | IAU
Does a body have to be perfectly spherical to be called a planet? For example, the rotation of a body can slightly distort the shape so that it is not perfectly spherical. Earth, for example, has a slightly greater diameter measured at the equator than measured at the poles.
Based on this new definition, how many planets are there in our Solar System? Is that all, only eight planets? In addition to the eight planets, there are also five known dwarf planets. Many more dwarf planets are likely to be discovered soon. What is a dwarf planet?
A dwarf planet is an object in orbit around the Sun that is large enough massive enough to have its own gravity pull itself into a round or nearly round shape.
Generally, a dwarf planet is smaller than Mercury. A dwarf planet may also orbit in a zone that has many other objects in it.
Pluto and the Developing Landscape of Our Solar System
For example, an orbit within the asteroid belt is in a zone with lots of other objects. How many dwarf planets are there? Currently there are five objects accepted as dwarf planets. Ceres, Pluto, Eris, Makemake and Haumea. Ceres is or now we can say it was the largest asteroid, about km across, orbiting in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Ceres now qualifies as a dwarf planet because it is now known to be large enough massive enough to have self-gravity pulling itself into a nearly round shape.
Thomas, Ceres orbits within the asteroid belt and is an example of the case of an object that does not orbit in a clear path. There are many other asteroids that can come close to the orbital path of Ceres. Didn't Ceres used to be called an asteroid or minor planet?
Historically, Ceres was called a planet when it was first discovered inorbiting in what is known as the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. In the 19th century astronomers could not resolve the size and shape of Ceres, and because numerous other bodies were discovered in the same region, Ceres lost its planetary status.
For more than a century, Ceres has been referred to as an asteroid or minor planet. Why is Pluto now called a dwarf planet? Pluto now falls into the dwarf planet category on account of its size and the fact that it resides within a zone of other similarly-sized objects known as the transneptunian region. Is Pluto's satellite Charon a dwarf planet?