How can I easily expand/collapse lists or headings
The for attribute of the label must exactly match the id of the form control. unlike the title attribute (see below), the information is not conveyed to visual users. when the label of the control is clear from the surrounding content, like the button in Screen readers and other assistive technology, just as web browsers, hide. Headers with only one equals sign on a side (=text here=) causes a title the size of the page name. after section editing one confusingly arrives at the wrong section; see also below. With __FORCETOC__, the TOC is placed before the first section heading. tag, type what you want to hide, then end it with -->, like this. p> hidden="false">This content is not hidden. If you want to hide content from all users, use the HTML5 hidden Focusable content should only be hidden from visible display if the . is to use text-indent to hide the text if you don't want users to see it. . heading.
This unusual alignment is most often used for setting captions or quotations apart from the main text. Adds space between letters and words so that both the left and right sides of the paragraph are straight and flush with the margins. Justified margins give text a more formal look suitable for textbooks or scholarly documents.
If your justified text looks odd because big gaps appear between the letters or words, try using a long line—that is, putting more characters per line. Set the alignment of your paragraphs using the buttons on the ribbon. Four settings are available: Left, Centered, Right, and Justified. Indenting Paragraphs One of the most common reasons for indenting a paragraph is to set off quoted text from the rest of the document.
Word makes it easy to indent text in this way. The ribbon buttons handle most everyday indentation chores, but what if you need to customize your indents? The Paragraph box is divided into four sections. From the top you see: General, Indentation, Spacing, and Preview. As you adjust your paragraph formatting using tools from the first three groups, you see the changes take place in an example paragraph in the Preview window.
The indentation tools in the Paragraph box let you set indents with much more precision than the simple Increase and Decrease buttons.
- Word 2007: The Missing Manual by Chris Grover
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For one thing, you can indent your paragraph from both margins using the Left and Right text boxes. Type a number in the box or use the arrow buttons to make an adjustment. Novels, short stories, and other manuscripts often indent the first line of each paragraph. For one thing, it creates an amateurish, type-writer-like half-inch indent. And you lose all the benefits of paragraph formatting. For example, when you press Enter to start a new paragraph, Word automatically carries your settings forward, with a perfect first-line indent just like the paragraph above.
This kind of indentation makes great looking glossaries, bibliographies, and such. You can adjust this spacing between paragraphs to set off some blocks of text from the rest. Use the Paragraph dialog box Figure to adjust the distance between paragraphs. On the left, you can enter numbers to set the space before the paragraph and the space after. For headers, you may want to put a little extra space before the header to distance it from the preceding text.
That space makes it clear that the header is related to the text beneath it. Generally speaking, the more significant the header, the larger the type and the greater the spacing around it. Use these controls to set the distance between lines within paragraphs.
You have three presets and three custom settings: Single keeps the lines close together, with a minimum amount of space between. Single spacing is usually easy to read, and it sure saves paper. At least is a good option if you have a mix of font sizes or include inline graphics with your text.
This option ensures that everything fits, as Figure illustrates. Exactly puts you in control.
How can I easily expand/collapse lists or headings in Cloud?
Multiple is the oddball of the bunch. Think of Multiple as a percentage of a single line space: Line spacing controls the space between lines within a paragraph. These examples show the same paragraph, with two different settings. Using the Exactly option with 12 points in the At box, the b and y get clipped off. Inserting Page Breaks and Line Breaks Some things just look wrong, such as a heading at the bottom of a page with no text beneath it. That heading should be at the top of the next page.
You could end up with a page break in some weird spot. The solution is to adjust your Line and Page Break settings so that headings and paragraphs behave the way you want them to. You can use four settings: Single lines abandoned at the top widows or bottom orphans of the page look out of place. Turn on this checkbox, and Word keeps the whole family, er, paragraph together. Certain paragraphs, like headings, need to stay attached to the paragraph that comes immediately after them.
Use this option to keep the paragraph as one unit. Use this command with major headings to make sure new sections of your document start on a new page. Use the Line and Page Break settings to control the appearance of your text and to avoid awkward transitions between pages.
Creating Bulleted and Numbered Lists Bullets and numbers add impact and help organize information. The bullets in the previous section call attention to the Line and Page Breaks commands and show that the commands are related to each other. Numbered paragraphs send a different signal, implying that the items listed are sequential or have a hierarchy. This book uses numbered paragraphs for step-by-step instructions. When using bullets or numbers, you usually want to format more than one paragraph.
To do that, make a selection, and then click the bullet or number button. You may spend more time choosing a bullet style than applying it. At the top of the menu Figureyou see bullet styles that you used recently.
In the middle, you see your Bullet Library. The bottom section shows bullet styles that have already been used in the document.
At the very bottom are two commands for customizing bullets. The Bullet menu provides choices from the traditional filled circle to more contemporary options.
If you have your own ideas for bullet design, at the bottom of the menu click Define New Bullet. On the Bullets menu, click to choose a bullet style. When you click a bullet to apply that style to the paragraph, a couple of things happen. Word adds the bullet and automatically formats the paragraph with a hanging indent Section 4. The bullet appears in this overhang, calling attention to the bullet and setting off the paragraph from the other body text. Type some text, and then press Enter to start a new paragraph.
The paragraph with the insertion point changes from a bulleted paragraph to a normal paragraph. You can even use your own graphics for bullets, like a miniaturized version of your company logo. The Define New Bullet Box opens, showing you three buttons at the top: Symbol, Picture, and Font.
Use the Font button to apply character styles to your choice such as font size, shadow, or bold formatting. The middle button is the most interesting—it opens the Picture Bullet box Figure where you see a whole slew of bullets based on picture files. These files are the same sort used for drawings and photographs, with filename extensions like.
In addition to these dozens of bullet options, you can use your own picture or graphic files as bullets. Just click the Import button at the bottom-left corner to open the Add Clips to Organizer box. Use this Windows file box to select any picture on your computer and add it to your bullet library. Numbered paragraphs In most cases, numbered paragraphs work just like bulleted paragraphs. You can follow the step-by-step instructions in the previous section for making bulleted paragraphs to make numbered paragraphs.
Just click the Numbering button, and then choose a number style Figure The main distinction between the numbered paragraphs and the bulleted paragraphs is in the options. For numbered paragraphs, you can choose from Arabic numbers, Roman numerals, numbers set off by parentheses, and alphabetic sequences. Multilevel lists Multilevel lists are a more advanced numbering format.
They help you create project and document outlines, as well as legal documents divided into articles and sections. In a multilevel list, each new level is indented nudged to the rightand usually each new level has a new number format Figure In addition to outline and legal numbering, multilevel lists can use bullets instead of numbers.
So for example, you can create a bulleted list that uses squares for level one, triangles for level two, and circles for level three. If you have pictures or drawings on your computer that you want to use as bullets, then click the Import button in the lower-left corner. Word provides several styles for numbered paragraphs. In fact, a better term would be sequenced paragraphs, because not all of the styles use numbers.
You find recently used styles at the top of the list. To customize your numbered lists, click Define New Number Format not shown at the bottom of the list.
Multilevel lists add an extra twist to the numbered format. Setting Tabs The lowly Tab key contains more power than you may think. Sure, you can use the Tab key to scoot the insertion point across the page in half-inch increments. You can use it to design a dinner menu, create a playbill, or develop a series of consistently formatted reports.
Tab stops are all about precision alignment, giving you control over the way you present text and numbers to your readers. Once you have settings you like, you can save and reuse them. Before you start working with tabs, you need to know a few basic terms: Technically considered tab characters, tabs are hidden formatting characters, similar to space characters. These paragraph settings define the position and characteristics of tabs in your document.
Think of tab stops as definitions, describing your tabs. To define them, you use Word tools, like the Ruler or the Tabs dialog box.
The key on your computer keyboard that inserts tabs into your text. Press the Tab key, and Word inserts a tab in the text at that point. The tab character makes the insertion point jump left to right and stop at the first tab stop it reaches.
How Tab Stops Work Tab stop settings apply to paragraphs. If a paragraph has several lines, the tab stops are the same for all the lines within that paragraph. These stops are left tab stops, meaning the text aligns on the left side.
You can see all tab stops on the horizontal ruler—they show as small vertical tick marks in the gray area below the number scale Figure Remember, tab stops are paragraph settings, so your insertion point must be in a paragraph to see them.
Viewing Tab Marks in Your Text Tabs are invisible on the printed page, like spaces or paragraph marks. Sometimes, when your document behaves unexpectedly, it helps to reveal the hidden characters so you can see if tabs are the culprit. To view tabs within your text: The Word Options button is at the bottom of the Office menu.
Use the Word Options box to reveal formatting characters like tabs, spaces, and paragraph marks. When you turn on the checkbox next to the mark, you see these nonprinting characters on your screen.
On the left side of the Word Options box, choose the Display option. The panel on the right is divided into three parts. In short, this part of the code moves the element pixels straight to the left. While this is a likely a little overkill and can probably be omitted in most circumstances, there are a few instances where positioning may be disabled, but all other styles remain enabled.
4. Formatting Text, Paragraphs, and Headings - Word The Missing Manual [Book]
In this case, the element will remain in its original position, but will only take 1 pixel of space. Note It is sometimes recommended to position content using left: While this works by positioning the content above the top of the page, if the hidden element contains a link or form element, upon receiving keyboard focus, the browser attempts to scroll to the element - thus scrolling the browser to the top of the page.
This could result in confusion for sighted keyboard users. By positioning directly to the left, the browser will not scroll to the top of the page. It should be noted that because links and form elements provide functionality, they should rarely be hidden from sighted users. Sighted users will not be able to see which element currently has focus because it is hidden off-screen.
In general, content should only be hidden from sighted users and made available to screen reader users when content is apparent visually, but not apparent to screen reader users. Instructional cues and indicators This technique can be used to provide instructional cues and indicators to screen reader users.
This should be implemented with discretion and only where necessary. This page demonstrates proper use of this technique in two places. First, the search text box at the top of the page has a hidden label immediately before it. It is apparent visually that the text box is for searching due to the presentation and the search button, but a screen reader requires a label for the text field.
As such, we provided a label, but have hidden it visually.