Massachusetts in the American Revolution – History of Massachusetts Blog
An unordered 'shot heard around the world' begins the American Revolution. On May 15, the Congress places the colonies in a state of defense. . Washington meets with Howe's representatives in New York and listens to vague offers of. The area was also home to many notable revolutionary-era icons, meeting in Salem, called to choose delegates to meet in Convention at. On the verge of the American Revolution, Committees of Correspondence were formed in . “General assemblies are forced to meet in inconvenient places.
Jefferson is chosen by the committee to prepare the first draft of the declaration, which he completes in one day.
Background, History, And The Beginning Of The Revolution
Just seventeen days later, June 28, Jefferson's Declaration of Independence is ready and is presented to the Congress, with changes made by Adams and Franklin. On July 2, twelve of thirteen colonial delegations New York abstains vote in support of Lee's resolution for independence. On July 4, the Congress formally endorses Jefferson's Declaration, with copies to be sent to all of the colonies.
The actual signing of the document occurs on August 2, as most of the 55 members of Congress place their names on the parchment copy. Peace feelers are then extended to the Americans. At the request of the British, Gen.
Washington meets with Howe's representatives in New York and listens to vague offers of clemency for the American rebels. Washington politely declines, then leaves. August- Gen. Howe leads 15, soldiers against Washington's army in the Battle of Long Island.
Washington, outnumbered two to one, suffers a severe defeat as his army is outflanked and scatters. The Americans retreat to Brooklyn Heights, facing possible capture by the British or even total surrender. Washington now changes tactics, avoiding large scale battles with the British by a series of retreats.
The conference fails as Howe demands the colonists revoke the Declaration of Independence. Several days later, fire engulfs New York City and destroys over buildings.
The History Place - American Revolution: Conflict and Revolution
September 22, - After he is caught spying on British troops on Long Island, Nathan Hale is executed without a trial, his last words, "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.
Franklin and Deane then travel to France seeking financial and military aid. October 9, - San Francisco is established by Spanish missionaries on the California coast. October 11, - A big defeat for the inexperienced American Navy on Lake Champlain at the hands of a British fleet of 87 gunships. In the 7 hour Battle of Valcour Bay most of the American flotilla of 83 gunships is crippled with the remaining ships destroyed in a second engagement two days later.
October 28, - After evacuating his main forces from Manhattan, Washington's army suffers heavy casualties in the Battle of White Plains from Gen. Washington then retreats westward. November, - More victories for the British as Fort Washington on Manhattan and its precious stores of over cannon, thousands of muskets and cartridges is captured by Gen.
Washington's army suffers casualties in the two defeats. Washington abandons the New York area and moves his forces further westward toward the Delaware River. So the act kind of backfired on Parliament. I mean, they tried to reign in Boston by passing the Massachusetts Government Act, which they likely hoped would turn the residents of rural Massachusetts against Boston, but instead the act actually caused the people of rural Massachusetts to ally with Boston.
Yes and not just allying but it became quite clear in August or September of that the people out in the rural parts of Massachusetts were even more militant at this point then the people in Boston.
The trouble started in mid-August as the farmers in the most western part of the province forced the local courts not to hold sessions, forced the local magistrates to promise that they would not open the courts, they would not have any rulings, they would not fine anybody, they would not make any decisions under the new Massachusetts Government Act.
They also, as men would be appointed to be mandamus counselors in August and September ofsome of them were intimidated, some by violence, from taking the oath and agreeing to that so that when, by the end of the summer, the new governor General Thomas Gage, had only a partial counsel and a lot of people saying that they would rather not be involved at all.
So there were lots of ways of protesting.
Massachusetts in the American Revolution
On August 24,Salem held a town meeting where they hosted the Massachusetts Provincial Congress and chose delegates to represent the town. The people of Salem could not be prevented exercising their just rights either by threats or the exhibition of force. In fact, all the powers of government were apparently annihilated. There was not a judge, justice of the peace, or sheriff, who would venture to withstand the inflamed and determined people; and British bayonets had also lost both their terrors and their influence.
Gage ordered his soldiers not to confront the crowd and a judge quickly released the prisoners. In defiance, the colonists held another town meeting in nearby Danvers and kept the meeting going two to three hours longer than usual just to see if Gage would intervene.
The protestors forced all the members of the royal appointees in Cambridge, two members of the mandamus counsel, the sheriff and the court clerks to either resign or apologize. They then moved on to the mansion of lieutenant governor where they forced him to resign as well, according to Bell: Cannons from the battery in Charlestown went missing as did the great cannon in Dorchester.
First Continental Congress - Wikipedia
Yet, despite the increased security, the cannons mysteriously went missing shortly after. This act of defiance on the part of the colonists seems to have caused a series of events that eventually sparked the Revolutionary War, according to Bell in his book The Road to Concord: Furious that the cannons had been stolen from right under his nose, Gage began to look for the cannons all across Massachusetts.
In February ofhe was informed by a loyalist that a number of cannons were being hidden in Salem. The cannons in Salem were not the stolen Boston cannons and were instead 19 French cannons that Col. David Mason of Salem had purchased with his own money to help arm the local militia in the impending war with the British. On July 4the Continental Congress voted to adopt the Declaration of Independencedrafted by a five-man committee including Franklin and John Adams but written mainly by Jefferson.
That same month, determined to crush the rebellion, the British government sent a large fleet, along with more than 34, troops to New York. Revolutionary War Turning Point British strategy in involved two main prongs of attack, aimed at separating New England where the rebellion enjoyed the most popular support from the other colonies.
Washington rebounded to strike Germantown in early October before withdrawing to winter quarters near Valley Forge. The American victory Saratoga would prove to be a turning point of the American Revolution, as it prompted France which had been secretly aiding the rebels since to enter the war openly on the American side, though it would not formally declare war on Great Britain until June The American Revolution, which had begun as a civil conflict between Britain and its colonies, had become a world war.
The battle effectively ended in a draw, as the Americans held their ground, but Clinton was able to get his army and supplies safely to New York. A joint attack on the British at Newport, Rhode Islandin late July failed, and for the most part the war settled into a stalemate phase in the North.