Difference between “Divergent Evolution” and “Convergent Evolution” – Explained!
Convergent & Divergent Evolution: Definition & Examples . evolution; otherwise , we might mistakenly assume a relationship between two. in the field of evolutionary biology, one is that about convergent and divergent evolution. What exactly is the difference between the two?. Two of these patterns are known as convergent and divergent evolution. Both show the ways that organisms have responded to natural selection and provide.
Divergent Evolution As the name implies, divergent evolution shows how species can change slightly over time and separate diverge into new forms. For example, in vertebrates like pigs, birds, monkeys and whales, the forelimbs have the same general sets of bones, but they have been modified over time so the animals can use their forelimbs in very different ways.
Divergent evolution is studied on a larger scale such as how the current diversity of life on Earth evolved from the first living cells, to a smaller scale where natural selection caused humans and apes to evolve from a common ancestor.
Differences Between Convergent and Divergent Evolution Three main differences between convergent and divergent evolution are: Convergent evolution shows how species have evolved separately but have similar analogous structures. Divergent evolution demonstrates how species can have common homologous anatomical structures which have evolved for different purposes. When we think of evolution, the first name to strike even someone who is not from a biological sciences background would be Charles Darwin.
Not a word can be written on evolution without mentioning the name of this pioneering evolutionary biologist. His work On the Origin of Species has been the topic of much discussion ever since it was first published. Of the many concepts that were elaborated in this book like survival of the fittest one was Darwin's Principle of Divergence.
Difference Between Convergent and Divergent Evolution
The other term - Convergent Evolution - is often regarded as the opposite of Divergence. However, convergent evolution was only a play of words that evolutionary biologists came up with to explain one of their many observations; it has got nothing to do with divergence as such.Convergent and Divergent Evolution (Ep.2)
Here is a brief account of convergent evolution vs. However, for the ease of understanding, I will first explain divergent evolution and then move onto convergent evolution. Divergent Evolution Imagine evolution of life to be a process like the flowing of a river. As it leaves the mountain, it will take its due course and meander about. If a boulder were to obstruct its flow into a crevice, it would take a turn around the crevice. If however a big enough boulder were to stand in between its path, the river would split into two and give rise to two new smaller rivers, each of which would meet its separate fates as it flowed down the mountain.
This is exactly what divergent evolution is all about. The boulder represents 'natural selection'. Natural selection is more of an outcome of natural pressure that organisms find themselves subjected to typically pressure of competition, pressure of meet the mating preferences of the opposite sex, etc.
It is the result rather than the process. However, the term 'natural selection' is now interchangeably used as cause and effect. So, divergent evolution is the creation of new species through accumulation of many small 'changes' that have originated as a result of the natural selective pressures.
Difference Between Convergent and Divergent Evolution (with Comparison Chart) - Bio Differences
Essentially the two new species created will diverge from each other as they further evolve. This is an important statement as will be evident when we take a look at convergent evolution vs. Three main triggers of divergent evolution have been identified - To Overcome Competition - Two individuals belonging to the same species pose greater competition for each other than 2 individuals belonging to different species for the reason that individuals of the same species would all have the same requirements of food, resources, mates etc.
If the competition gets too tough, divergence is the result. They are scattered all over. So those in Florida may adapt to a tropical climate while those in, say South Dakota, would adapt to a continental type of climate.
This could create two different monkey species. Neutral Evolution - Sometimes the changes that occur at the level of the genes cannot be attributed to a specific trigger, these are called neutral mutations.
Evolution also takes place in this way. The wings of bats and the wings of insects are evolved from completely different original structures. Thus, the convergent evolution causes similar structures in different lineages of organisms. These similar structures are called analogous structures. Another example of convergent evolution is the body shape of dolphins and sharks. Though dolphins and sharks are distantly related animals, their body shapes are adapted for fast swimming.
Difference between Convergent and Divergent Evolution | Biology Dictionary
Thus, the environment forces the phenotype of distantly related organisms to become analogous. Convergent evolution of the body shape of the shark and dolphin The development of the eye of vertebrates, cephalopods, and cnidarian is another example of convergent evolution.
What is Divergent Evolution Divergent evolution is a process of developing two or more species from a common ancestor. The branching begins with the selective breeding of naturally or artificially chosen traits, which occurs over time.
Thus, divergent evolution is a process of macroevolutioncreating more diversity of species in the biosphere. Divergent evolution produces important changes within individuals for their survival within a changing environment.
Natural disasters such as volcanos, changings of the climate, and spread of diseases may cause the divergent evolution. The most beneficial traits will be selected through natural selection.