Definitions of Environmental Health | National Environmental Health Association: NEHA
Item 1 - 60 of Our collection of Environment, Ecology and Conservation PowerPoint Templates and PPT Slides are used by ecologists all over the world. inequities can mean the difference between life or death, or a life filled with . Conversely, the better the social environment, the more pos-. At the end of this session the participants should be able to conceptualize: 1. health in its physical, mental, social and spiritual context;.
For CO2, it can range between 5 and years, while it is about 12 years for methane and years for N2O. For halocarbons, such as Chlorofluorocarbons, it is at least 45 years.
There is an ongoing debate to what extent these emissions are linked to climate change, but the debate relates more to the extent of these impacts than their nature.
In addition to be a contributor to climate change, transportation is also impacted by itparticularly over infrastructure e. Air quality Highway vehicles, marine engines, locomotives and aircraft are the sources of pollution in the form of gas and particulate matters emissions that affects air quality causing damage to human health. The most common include lead Pbcarbon monoxide COnitrogen oxides NOxsilicon tetraflouride SF6benzene and volatile components BTXheavy metals zinc, chrome, copper and cadmium and particulate matters ash, dust.
Lead emissions have declined substantially in the last decades as its use as an anti-knock agent for gasoline was banned in the majority of countries from the s. Toxic air pollutants are associated with cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological diseases. Carbon monoxide CO when inhaled reduces the availability of oxygen in the circulatory system and can be extremely harmful.
Nitrogen dioxide NO2 emissions from transportation sources reduces lung function, affect the respiratory immune defense system and increases the risk of respiratory problems. The emissions of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides NOx in the atmosphere form various acidic compounds that when mixed in cloud water creates acid rain.
Acid precipitation has detrimental effects on the built environment, reduces agricultural crop yields and causes forest decline. Smog is a mixture of solid and liquid fog and smoke particles formed through the accumulation of carbon monoxide, ozone, hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxide, water, particulates, and other chemical pollutants.
The reduction of visibility caused by smog has a number of adverse impacts on the quality of life and the attractiveness of tourist sites.
The Environmental Impacts of Transportation
Particulate emissions in the form of dust emanating from vehicle exhaust as well as from non-exhaust sources such as vehicle and road abrasion have an impact on air quality. The physical and chemical properties of particulates are associated with health risks such as respiratory problems, skin irritations, eyes inflammations, blood clotting and various types of allergies.
Smog is often exacerbated by local physical and meteorological conditions which can create periods of high smog concentration and public responses to temporarily mitigate them, such as restricting automobile use.
While air quality issues have been comprehensively addressed in advanced economies, with substantial declines in the emissions of a wide range of pollutants. In developing economies, rapid motorization has shifted the concern to the large cities of China and India among those the most impacted by the deterioration of air quality.
Noise Noise represents the general effect of irregular and chaotic sounds on people as well as animal life. Basically, noise is an undesirable sound. The acoustic measure of the intensity of noise is expressed in decibel, db, with a scale ranging from 1 db to db.
Long term exposure to noise levels above 75 decibels dB seriously hampers hearing and affects human physical and psychological wellbeing. Noise emanating from the movement of transport vehicles and the operations of ports, airports and railyards affects human health, through an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Ambient noise is a frequent result of road transportation in urban areas, which is the cumulative outcome of all the noise generated by vehicles ranging from 45 to 65 dbwhich impairs the quality of life and thus property values.
Falling land values nearby acute noise sources such as airports are often noted. Many noise regulations impose mitigation if noise reach a defined level, such as sound walls and other soundproofing techniques. Fuel, chemical and other hazardous particulates discarded from aircraft, cars, trucks and trains or from port and airport terminal operations can contaminate hydrographic systems. Because demand for maritime shipping has increased, marine transport emissions represent the most important segment of water quality impact of the transportation sector.
The main effects of marine transport operations on water quality predominantly arise from dredging, waste, ballast waters and oil spills.
Dredging is the process of deepening harbor channels by removing sediments from the bed of a body of water. Dredging is essential to create and maintain sufficient water depth for shipping operations and port accessibility. Dredging activities have a two-fold negative impact on the marine environment. They modify the hydrology by creating turbidity that can affect the marine biological diversity.
The contaminated sediments and water raised by dredging require spoil disposal sites and decontamination techniques. Waste generated by the operations of vessels at sea or at ports cause serious environmental problems, since they can contain a very high level of bacteria that can be hazardous for public health as well as marine ecosystems when discharged in waters.
Besides, various types of garbage containing metals and plastic are not easily biodegradable. They can persist on the sea surface for long periods of time and can be a serious impediment for maritime navigation in inland waterways and at sea and affecting as well berthing operations. Ballast waters acquired in a region may contain invasive aquatic species that, when discharged in another region may thrive in a new marine environment and disrupt the natural marine ecosystem.
Invasive species have resulted in major changes in nearshore ecosystems, especially in coastal lagoons and inlets. Major oil spills from oil cargo vessel accidents are one of the most serious problems of pollution from maritime transport activities.
Soil quality The environmental impact of transportation on soil quality, particularly soil erosion and soil contamination. Coastal transport facilities have significant impacts on soil erosion. Shipping activities are modifying the scale and scope of wave actions leading to damage in confined channels such as river banks. Highway construction or lessening surface grades for port and airport developments have led to important loss of fertile land. Soil contamination can occur through the use of toxic materials by the transport industry.
Fuel and oil spills from motor vehicles are washed on road sides and enter the soil. Chemicals used for the preservation of wooden railroad ties may enter into the soil. Hazardous materials and heavy metals have been found in areas contiguous to railroads, ports and airports.
Biodiversity Transportation also influences biodiversity. The need for construction materials and the development of land-based transportation has led to deforestation. Many transport routes have required draining land, thus reducing wetland areas and driving-out water plant species.
The need to maintain road and rail right-of-way or to stabilize slope along transport facilities has resulted in restricting growth of certain plants or has produced changes in plants with the introduction of new species different from those which originally grew in the areas.
Many animal species are becoming endangered as a result of changes in their natural habitats and reduction of ranges due to the fragmentation of their habitat by transportation infrastructures. Land take Transportation facilities have an impact on the urban landscape. The development of port and airport infrastructure is significant features of the urban and peri-urban built environment. Social and economic cohesion can be severed when new transport facilities such as elevated train and highway structures cut across an existing urban community.
Arteries or transport terminals can define urban borders and produce segregation. Major transport facilities can affect the quality of urban life by creating physical barriers, increasing noise levels, generating odors, reducing urban aesthetic and affecting the built heritage.
Environmental Health | Healthy People
The expansion of logistics activities has also be an indirect factor of land take in suburban and periurban areas. Environmental Externalities Externalities are an economic concept that refers to the activities of a group that have consequences, positive or negative, intended or unintended, on other groups.
These consequences, particularly if they are negative, are not assumed by those causing them. The impacts are therefore externalized. A common example of a positive externality concerns technology since it obviously benefits the innovative firm but also the whole economy through various productivity improvements or improved convenience.
Negative externalities have a lot of relevance over environmental issues, since many of the negative consequences of pollution are assumed by the whole society.
The environmental externalities of transportation include the consideration of physical measures of environmental damage and the evaluation of involved costs for the society. Environmental epidemiology studies the relationship between environmental exposures including exposure to chemicals, radiation, microbiological agents, etc.
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Observational studies, which simply observe exposures that people have already experienced, are common in environmental epidemiology because humans cannot ethically be exposed to agents that are known or suspected to cause disease. While the inability to use experimental study designs is a limitation of environmental epidemiology, this discipline directly observes effects on human health rather than estimating effects from animal studies. Toxicology has the advantage of being able to conduct randomized controlled trials and other experimental studies because they can use animal subjects.
However there are many differences in animal and human biology, and there can be a lot of uncertainty when interpreting the results of animal studies for their implications for human health.
Exposure science can be used to support environmental epidemiology by better describing environmental exposures that may lead to a particular health outcome,identify common exposures whose health outcomes may be better understood through a toxicology study, or can be used in a risk assessment to determine whether current levels of exposure might exceed recommended levels.
Exposure science has the advantage of being able to very accurately quantify exposures to specific chemicals, but it does not generate any information about health outcomes like environmental epidemiology or toxicology.Health and Safety Presentation
This can in turn be used to develop and implement environmental health policy that, for example, regulates chemical emissions, or imposes standards for proper sanitation. The issue of sustainable development is a key message for the friendly coexistence between development and the environment. The World Commission on Environment and Development defined sustainable development as: Referring to Figure 1. You may think of different examples; here are some that we thought of: Humans affecting the environment: The environment affecting humans: Friendly coexistence sustainable development: Environmental health is associated with recognising, assessing, understanding and controlling the impacts of people on their environment and the impacts of the environment on the public.
The role of the environmental healthworker, therefore, includes the following functions of public health: Improving human health and protecting it from environmental hazards. Developing liaison between the community and the local authority, and between the local and higher levels of administration.
Acting independently to provide advice on environmental health matters;designing and developing plans of action for environmental health. Monitoring and evaluating environmental health activities, programmes and projects. You, as a healthworker, are very much involved in all of the above except e and fwhich are mainly carried out by the woreda environmental healthworker.
However, the kebele administrator may ask you to help with the enforcement of environmental legislation, if deemed apprioriate. You, as part of kebele cabinet, will be requested to prepare an environmental health plan.
The approach to planning is similar to that described in the Health Management, Ethics and Research Module. However, the primary focus is what makes it different. The following planning steps are suggested. You can use various tools in order to identify these problems.
This is a systematic survey using a questionnaire. The questionnaire contains basic indicators of environmental health such as latrine availability, source of drinking water, waste disposal systems, cleanliness of the community, etc. You will need to do some statistical analysis proportions and averages to refine basic indicators of environmental health for your local context. You must be careful when designing a survey as it requires time, expertise and resources. You can plan it in coordination with the woreda environmental healthworker.