Maslow introduced his Hierarchy of needs in and later fully developed it in Q#3: use the theory of Maslow/Herzberg Theory to explain the decrease in and illustration in showing the connection of the film to Maslow's theory. Born to Samuel and Rose Schilofsky, Maslow was one of their seven children. Compare and Contrast Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory with Vroom's efforts – the link between efforts, performance, and outcome/reward. Compare and contrast Piaget‚Äôs and Vygotsky‚Äôs theories of cognitive development in children The Maslow 's Hierarchy Of Needs Theory And Herzberg 's Two. Define humanist theory in relation to human psychology Identify how Maslow's work can be applied to learning in adults and children .. Maslow's work and that of Frederick Herzberg (), who developed his own two-.
Among various behavioral theories long generally believed and embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. Herzberg, a psychologist, proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees. Maslow, a behavioral scientist and contemporary of Herzberg's, developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of various human needs and how people pursue these needs.
These theories are widely cited in the business literature. In the education profession, however, researchers in the '80s raised questions about the applicability of Maslow's and Herzberg's theories to elementary and secondary school teachers: Do educators, in fact, fit the profiles of the average business employee?
That is, do teachers 1 respond to the same motivators that Herzberg associated with employees in profit-making businesses and 2 have the same needs patterns as those uncovered by Maslow in his studies of business employees? This digest first provides brief outlines of the Herzberg and Maslow theories.
This study found evidence that the teachers in the program do not match the behavior of people employed in business.
Herzberg's Theory of Motivation and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. ERIC Digest.
Specifically, the findings disagree with Herzberg in relation to the importance of money as a motivator and, with Maslow in regard to the position of esteem in a person's hierarchy of needs. He concluded that such factors as company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary are hygiene factors rather than motivators.
According to the theory, the absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction, but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction.
In contrast, he determined from the data that the motivators were elements that enriched a person's job; he found five factors in particular that were strong determiners of job satisfaction: These motivators satisfiers were associated with long-term positive effects in job performance while the hygiene factors dissatisfiers consistently produced only short-term changes in job attitudes and performance, which quickly fell back to its previous level.
In summary, satisfiers describe a person's relationship with what she or he does, many related to the tasks being performed. Dissatisfiers, on the other hand, have to do with a person' relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job.
The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. He postulated, based on his observations as a humanistic psychologist, that there is a general pattern of needs recognition and satisfaction that people follow in generally the same sequence. He also theorized that a person could not recognize or pursue the next higher need in the hierarchy until her or his currently recognized need was substantially or completely satisfied, a concept called prepotency.
According to various literature on motivation, individuals often have problems consistently articulating what they want from a job.
If a student gets positive verbal feedback and a good grade for his test, this reinforcement encourages the performance of the behaviour to recur. For example, when a student who is usually late to class gets positive feedback when he arrives on time, the student becomes more and more punctual. Positive reinforcement motivates to get the anticipated reinforcement of required behaviour.
In this case the meal is a negative reinforcement because it eliminates the unpleasant state hunger.
Contrary to positive and negative reinforcement, punishment can be undesired reinforcement, or reinforce undesired behaviour. For example, if a student is always late to class and thus he gets negative verbal feedback and also always has to tidy up the classroom at the end of the day, in this case the undesirable behaviour is reinforced with an undesirable reinforcer.
The punishment declines the tendency to be late. According to the theory, positive reinforcement is a much better motivational technique than punishment because punishment: Once certain behaviour has been conditioned through repetitive reinforcement, elimination of the reinforcement will decline the motivation to perform that behaviour.
Therefore it is better not to give a reward every time. Reinforcement in the workplace usually takes place on a partial or irregular reinforcement schedule, when reward is not given for every response.
The reinforcement theory is included in many other motivation theories. Reward must meet someone's needs, expectations, must be applied equitably, and must be consistent.
Maslow’s Theory and Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation
The desired behaviour must be clear and realistic, but the issue remains: Vroom's expectancy theory The expectancy theory places an emphasis on the process and on the content of motivation as well, and it integrates needs, equity and reinforcement theories.
Victor Vroom's expectancy theory aims to explain how people choose from the available actions. Vroom defines motivation as a process that governs our choices among alternative forms of voluntary behaviour. The basic rationale of this theory is that motivation stems from the belief that decisions will have their desired outcomes.
The motivation to engage in an activity is determined by appraising three factors. These three factors are the following Figure 4: If you work harder, it will result in better performance.
In this case the question is: If you perform well, you will get reward. In this case the question is that: If one day I get a good grade and another day I get a bad grade for the same performance, then the motivation will decrease.
Vroom supposes that expectancy, instrumentality and valence are multiplied together to determine motivation. This means that if any of these is zero, then the motivation to do something will be zero as well.
Vroom's expectancy theory Source: For example if I think: The expectancy theory highlights individual differences in motivation and contains three useful factors for understanding and increasing motivation. Adams' equity theory The equity theory states that people are motivated if they are treated equitably, and receive what they consider fair for their effort and costs.
The theory was suggested by Adams and is based on Social Exchange theory.