Why Artistic Activism? – Center for Artistic Activism
In particular, to be recruited by an activist and the perceived effectiveness of We specify the role of networks for social movements by looking at the nature and . Similarly, Diani and Lodi () showed that 78% of activists had prior connections (Piven & Cloward, ), scholars started to specify which networks affect what. Attempting to define the social mechanisms that link networks to protest. Defining activism. Marcelo G. definition of activism pursued here conceives it as an open-ended process . and social mechanisms used in political psychology to explain activism empirical relationships between bodies and things.
Situational awareness, participation benefits, and social ties influence were positive predictors of social media campaign participation intentions. Situational awareness also partially mediates the relationship between participation benefits and participation intentions as well as strong ties influence and participation intentions.
When designing social media campaigns, public interest communicators should raise situational awareness and emphasize participation benefits. Messages shared through social networks, especially via strong ties, also may be more effective than those posted only on official websites or social networking sites SNSs.
Keywords Situational theory of publics; Social media campaign, Public interest communications; Participation benefits; Social ties Full Text: Elaborations of the situational theory of publics for more effective application to public relations scholarship and practice.
Challenges for the next generation pp. Tie strength, embeddedness, and social influence: A large-scale networked experiment. Management Science, 60 6 Practical issues in structural modeling. A new incremental fit index for general structural equation models. Psychometrika, 50 2 Social movement participation in the digital age: Predicting offline and online collective action.
Small Group Research, 33 5 Effect of support and personal distance on the definition of key publics for the issue of AIDS. The Journalism Quarterly, 68 4 Analyzing models with unobservable variables. Social movements and new technology 1st ed. Networks of outrage and hopes: Social movements in the Internet age. User movement in location-based social networks. Determinants of consumer engagement in electronic word-of-mouth eWOM in social networking sites.
International Journal of Advertising, 30 1 Digitally enabled social change: Activism in the internet age. Critical perspectives on social media and protest: Between control and emancipation. Social movement networks virtual and real. Social features of online networks: The strength of intermediary ties in online social media.
PloS one, 7 1e The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78 6 The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. Sociological Theory, 1 1 The role of information in economic decision making.
Journalism Monographs, 3, Publics, audiences and market segments: Models of receivers of campaign messages. Managing the process of social change pp.
A situational theory of publics: Conceptual history, recent challenges and new research. An international perspective pp. Constructing public relations theory and practice. Essays honoring Richard F. A replication, application, and extension. Journal of Public Relations Research, 4 3 Multivariate data analysis 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: Digital social advocacy in the Justice for Trayvon Campaign. Journal of Public Relations Research, 27 4 Social media framing within the Million Hoodies movement for justice.
Public Relations Review, 42 1 Personal networks of women and minorities in management: Academy of Management Review, 18, By any media necessary: The new youth activism, New York, NY: Social networks among poor women in Ethiopia. International Social Work, 52 3— Reconceptualizing the communicative action of publics: Acquisition, selection, and transmission of information in problematic situations.
International Journal of Strategic Communication, 4 2 Public segmentation using situational theory of problem solving: Illustrating summation method and testing segmented public profiles, Prism, 8 2 Problem solving and communicative action: A situational theory of problem solving.
Journal of Communication, 61 1 Principle and practice of structural equation modeling 2nd ed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Social network analysis 2nd ed.
For example, Hampton and Wellman show that Internet users had three times as many weak ties as nonusers. With Internet-based social networking sites Facebook, in particularindividuals can have hundreds of connections with whom they are acquainted with but not as close Choi et al.
In contrast to traditional mainstream media, such as television, radio, newspapers, and other printed materials, which typically cover contentious collective actions through hegemonic messages, misinformation, and negative portrayals DowningICT-based platforms provide a conventional and effective journalism tool for activists to diffuse and exchange timely information and accurate perspectives about an event Van Laer Finally, Campbell and Kwak indicates how mobile-mediated communication enhances political participation by reinforcing and expanding close personal ties.
All of these studies have provided the first insights into the positive effects of ICT-improved connectivity on collective actions. Thus, the composition of the social network is extremely critical for the outcome of the collective action Siegel Experimental studies show that networks with many clustered ties strong ties are more effective for participation diffusion than networks with many long ties weak ties Centola For example, a survey of 11 nations reveals that the number of offline strong ties among the users of a social networking site from different nations is the same, whereas the users of collectivistic nations have significantly more online strong ties Cardon et al.
Similarly, Choi et al. However, what others believe about a certain political issue, to a large extent, determines one's decision Granovetter ; Kitts ; Kuran Individuals do not encounter global opinion distribution directly, but instead, they acquire knowledge through a personal network.
Greater network connections provide more opportunities for individuals to learn about global preferences more precisely.
On the one hand, if more people are inclined to participate in the activity, then ICTs make it easier for potential participants to find like-minded individuals. These homogeneous encounters then reinforce their confidence of the action Centola et al. In this case, ICTs can facilitate participation by lowering the costs of potential participants to express their true preferences Farrell As in the Tunisian uprising, the use of ICTs, such as Facebook and Twitter, generated an information cascade regarding the opposition to the regime, which led to more online and offline protests Lynch On the other hand, ICTs can make it more costly for individuals to engage in collective actions that are deemed unpopular.
This is because individuals are more likely to falsify their political preferences in order to avoid social friction or political repression Kuran ; Mutz In sum, the role of ICTs in collective actions can be positive or negative, to some extent, depending on whether ICTs make preference falsification less or more likely.
Analytical Models of Collective Action 2.
Olson proposes a formal model of a collective action where individuals are rational and act based on a cost-benefit calculation from the theory of public goods.
This model sheds light on the free-riding problem and suggests that selective incentives, such as punishments and rewards, are necessary for trigging collective action.
However, empirical evidence shows that collective actions are a critical mass system Granovetter ; Schelling "in which participation by a small fraction of the population can trigger a snowball of activity" without any selective incentive Centolap.
For example, Granovetter proposes a threshold model in which one joins an activity if the proportion of the ones who have already engaged in the event exceed a certain threshold. Schelling presents a similar model assuming that an individual becomes involved if there are enough participants. In other words, the decision of an individual depends on the expected participation level.
Kuran pushes the threshold model further by a dynamic threshold and assumes that the participation cost threshold decreases as the size of the collective action increases.
Similarly, Lohmann proposes a model of information cascade to explain the mass protests in Leipzig —91 where people observed the actions of others to acquire previously hidden information before revising their beliefs. In all of these models, people are so-called boundedly rational, thus implying that the dynamics of collective actions are mainly affected by two factors: Conversely, a social network is also extremely important to the outcome of collective actions due to the interdependence of individuals' decisions Centola et al.
In this regard, some researchers have begun studying the role of size Marwell et al. ABM has become a major bottom-up tool and a "third way" to complement the traditional inductive and deductive approaches Axelrod ABM consists of autonomous and goal-oriented agents embedded in a dynamic environment. In the threshold model, since individuals are represented as networked "agents" with identical or diverse thresholds, their choices of participating are set as a decision rule, and the overall participation level is measured at the network level.
In contrast to other works, the authors characterize social behavior as "complex contagion" in which a single information resource is insufficient to make an agent participate. In other words, information regarding participation costs needs to be reinforced by several sources. In such cases, less clustered weak ties are not enough to spur an individual to participate.
Activism, social and political
Instead, the redundancy of strong ties is necessary for the diffusion of collective actions. He defines the following typologies that mirror common empirical social networks: Unlike Centola and Macywho assume that all individuals have an identical threshold, Siegel believes that the thresholds of individuals are heterogeneous with normal distribution. He also shows that the effects of network structure and threshold distribution on collective actions are mediated by network size, the composition of strong and weak ties, and the role of leaders.