The meaning of caring in the practice of intensive care nursing.
is expected that a new unified definition of the concept of care may contribute to . care relationship was conceived as a dependence relationship ingrained in a . The meaning of caring in the practice of intensive care nursing. The concept of caring in the ICU is central to the social relationship between the nurse, the. Examination of the concept of caring resulted in the identification of five caring as an affect, caring as an interpersonal relationship, and caring as a nursing.
That is, participants in this study gained most psychological benefits from support they were not explicitly aware of having received. However, other researchers have argued that the responsiveness of enacted support is a more important factor than the visibility of the support.
Secure base function of caregiving[ edit ] See also: Michelangelo phenomenon Definition and functions[ edit ] In addition to giving support and reassurance during distress, another important function of caregiving within intimate relationships is the provision of support for a relationship partner's personal growth, exploration, and goal strivings.
This can include actions such as removing obstacles to the partner's goal pursuit for example, taking over some household chores to free up time for the partner to engage in a new activitybeing sensitive and responsive to the partner's communications of distress, and communicating readiness to help in the event that support becomes needed. Second, effective caregiving does not unnecessarily interfere with exploration. That is, effective caregivers do not provide support when it is neither needed nor desired, attempt to take over or control the activity, or disrupt the partner's goal strivings.
Third, partners should communicate encouragement and acceptance of exploration i. Partners' communications of enthusiasm are related to better performance, heightened enthusiasm, better mood, increases in state self-esteem, enhanced self-perceptions, greater enjoyment, and more positive feelings toward the partner.
Dependency paradox[ edit ] All humans have a fundamental, evolutionarily-rooted need to feel socially connected to other people i. Specifically, receipt of such support increases feelings of trust and the endorsement of a more prosocial orientation i.
Active-constructive responses clearly communicate enthusiasm for the positive event, passive-constructive responses express support in a quiet, understated way, active-destructive responses squash the event and the partner's enthusiasm e. Only active-constructive responses are associated with emotional and relationship well-being. For the identification of attributes, we used the following questions: How does the theory define the concept?
What characteristics are described relating to the transpersonal caring concept? In order to find the antecedents of the concept under analysis, we established the following question: What events contribute to the emergence and existence of the concept? And finally, so that we could verify the presence of the consequences related to the concept, we used the following question: What results after the application of the transpersonal caring concept?
RESULTS As noted by the results presented, the analysis of literary works that comprised the study sample allowed the identification of the antecedents, attributes and consequences of the transpersonal caring concept, shown in Table 1. Antecedents of transpersonal caring Among the antecedents described in Table 1the element most present in the publications analyzed was the caring moment event or real occasion of caringpresent in all of the selected publications.
The author further states, in more recent work 14 that, a caring moment transcends time and space and continues as part of a larger complex pattern of life of both the nurse and the patient.
The caring moment is one in which the self of the nurse joins the self of the client union between those involved in caringbecoming one. This union provokes permanent changes in the lives of these beings, which is able to echo into the future The Theory of Human Caring considers transpersonal caring as that which happens at the moment of caring, an occasion in which the process elements of clinical caritas are used to operationalize and support the nurse to drive the effectuation of transpersonal caring.
Therefore, in order for transpersonal caring to occur, there is necessity for a caring moment to exist. In addition to this element, a transpersonal caring relationship also depends on a moral commitment among those involved in the caring relationship; intention and will of the nurse to be in the relationship and thus affirm the subjective significance of being caring ; and understanding that the human being is not just the sum of its constituent parties, but a mind-body-spirit unit Attributes or essential characteristics of transpersonal caring The most described element in the publications that comprised the sample was intersubjectivity, which is present in the definition of transpersonality described by Jean Watson.
Transpersonal refers to an intersubjectivity of the human to human relationship in which the person of the nurse influences and is influenced by another person.
Concepts of caring and caring as a concept.
Both are fully present in the moment and feel a bond with one another. They share a phenomenological field that becomes part of the life history, and both are co-participants in becoming the now and the future Thus, it is possible to see that the concept of intersubjectivity is intimately related to another element quite present in the publications analyzed, reciprocity and mutual influence between the one who provides caring and the one who is cared for.
Transpersonal caring radiates a field of caring beyond the people involved transcends the individualin a process that becomes part of the complex journey of life 2, This subjective contact has the potential to go beyond the physical-material or mental-emotional; it transcends time, space and physicality and affects those involved so that they carry for their lives the lived process 2, Thus, the form of transpersonal caring is understood as the moral ideal of nursing, in which the maximum concern is with the dignity and preservation of the human being.
A transpersonal caring relationship connotes a relationship of special caring, a union with another person, and considers the whole and its being in the world 10, Besides these, other elements are commonly cited in the analyzed works as essential attributes of the concept under analysis.
Transpersonal caring in nursing: an analysis grounded in a conceptual model
The theory affirms that transpersonal caring and the relationships of caring are scientific, professional, ethical, aesthetic, creative and personalized behaviors of giving and receiving responses between those involved The moments of transpersonal human caring are connections that include the awareness of the nurse, intentionality, authenticity and sincerity, through the use of self, recognizing the totality of the other, noticing movements, senses, touch, sounds, words, colors and ways in which the client transmits and reflects his own condition It is, therefore, a careful experiential, contextual and metaphysical caring, based on a system of values that recognizes the power of love, faith, compassion and consciousness associated with a profound respect and admiration for the mysteries of life, named, fromas caritas As stated, transpersonal human care occurs in an I-thou relationship, and this contact is a process that transforms, creates and potentiates the healing process, a term that means recomposition, restoration and reconstitution, but that should not be construed as a cure Therefore, transpersonal caring is a transformation in which the individual moves toward a heightened sense of being and harmony with his mind, body and spirit.
Transpersonal caring liberates feelings, allows the client, the care receiver, to better assimilate the condition of his own being. Such assimilation can lead to the reorganization of the perceived I and of the experienced I Since the publication of the book, Caring science as sacred science, inan evolution occurred in the construction of the theory. The caring factors are replaced by elements of the clinical caritas process. In order to expose them, Watson enables a profound understanding of the dimensions of the process of life and of human experiences, in addition to expanding its concepts, including the sacredness of being caring and its connection to a plan that extrapolates the concrete and visual, thus having the proposition of healing and reconstitution 2,12, According to this perception, and to use caritas and caritas processes or clinical caritas, the theory 2, affirms intentional invoking of the word love, explaining the connection between caring and love 18, By bringing together love and caring, one is invited to deepen the transpersonal caring.
The relationship between love and caring creates an opening for internal healing of everyone 2,15,18which, in other words, generates and potentiates processes of self-recovery, self-growth, self-control and self-recuperation. Therefore, transpersonal caring is perceived as one that happens at the moment of caring, operationalized by the elements of the process of clinical caritas, much more than a nursing process, a view that Watson did not advocate 3.
Transpersonal caring, understood in this dimension, enables a better understanding of oneself to better know one another, promotes the amplification of the capacity of restructuring. The care that encompasses and values the trinomial body-mind-spirit is capable of changing the focus of caring, moving the focus from cure to reconstitution and love It is worth highlighting the commitment of the theorist to her beliefs and studies, which are portrayed in dozens of scientific articles and in about 15 books that address not only the Theory of Human Caring, but aspects relating to caring in nursing.
Therefore, this study makes it possible to notice that the concept transpersonal caring presents negligible changes in its definition with the passing of years and the publications presented by Jean Watson, because the first definition presented in the production has been maintained as its base in the publication of However, independent of the maintenance of premises contained in the concept, The Theory of Human Caring, in general, transformed and received significant changes over time, especially with regard to the expansion and reformulation of the older factors of caring, which are now being called elements of the clinical caritas process.
As a possible limitation of the study, we would point to our option to not include the case elaboration phase in the selected method, an aspect that could be investigated in future studies. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; University Press of Colorado; Strategies for theory construction in nursing.
Poles K, Bousso RS. Dignified death for children: Jones e Bartlett Learning; Caring science as sacred science.