Common-law marriage - Wikipedia
Common-law marriage, also known as sui iuris marriage, informal marriage, marriage by habit . England abolished clandestine or common-law marriages in the Marriage Act . The complete CRA definitions for marital status is available. the common practice of museums and galleries evidently remains unchanged (cf. between EU and UK laws. In photography, the relationship between. Discover what it takes to be a Museum/gallery curator. Find out expected salary, working hours, qualifications and more.
This explicit separation was at the request of Owen, and has been seen as a statement of his contemporary rebuttal of Darwin's attempt to link present species with past through the theory of natural selection. These all form part of the complex known colloquially as Albertopolis. Separation from the British Museum[ edit ] Even after the opening, the Natural History Museum legally remained a department of the British Museum with the formal name British Museum Natural Historyusually abbreviated in the scientific literature as B.
A petition to the Chancellor of the Exchequer was made insigned by the heads of the RoyalLinnean and Zoological Societies as well as naturalists including DarwinWallace and Huxleyasking that the museum gain independence from the board of the British Museum, and heated discussions on the matter continued for nearly one hundred years. Finally, with the passing of the British Museum Actthe British Museum Natural History became an independent museum with its own Board of Trustees, although — despite a proposed amendment to the act in the House of Lords — the former name was retained.
In the museum publicly re-branded itself as The Natural History Museum and effectively stopped using the title British Museum Natural History on its advertising and its books for general readers. Geological Museum The spinning globe in Inthe museum absorbed the adjacent Geological Museum of the British Geological Surveywhich had long competed for the limited space available in the area. The Geological Museum became world-famous for exhibitions including an active volcano model and an earthquake machine designed by James Gardnerand housed the world's first computer-enhanced exhibition Treasures of the Earth.
The museum's galleries were completely rebuilt and relaunched in as The Earth Galleries, with the other exhibitions in the Waterhouse building retitled The Life Galleries. The Natural History Museum's own Mineralogy displays remain largely unchanged as an example of the 19th-century display techniques of the Waterhouse building. The central atrium design by Neal Potter overcame visitors' reluctance to visit the upper galleries by "pulling" them through a model of the Earth made up of random plates on an escalator.
The new design covered the walls in recycled slate and sandblasted the major stars and planets onto the wall. The Museum's 'star' geological exhibits are displayed within the walls. Six iconic figures are the backdrop to discussing how previous generations have viewed Earth.
These were later removed to make place for a Stegosaurus skeleton that was put on display in late The Tank Room within Darwin Centre Phase 1 holds larger fish from the spirit collection, and preparation facilities for them. The Darwin Centre named after Charles Darwin was designed as a new home for the museum's collection of tens of millions of preserved specimens, as well as new work spaces for the museum's scientific staff, and new educational visitor experiences.
Built in two distinct phases, with two new buildings adjacent to the main Waterhouse building, it is the most significant new development project in the museum's history. Phase one of the Darwin Centre opened to the public inand it houses the zoological department's 'spirit collections'—organisms preserved in alcohol. Phase Two was unveiled in September and opened to the general public in September It was designed by the Danish architecture practice C.
As part of the museum's remit to communicate science education and conservation work, a new multimedia studio will form an important part of Darwin Centre Phase 2. In collaboration with the BBC's Natural History Unit holder of the largest archive of natural history footage the Attenborough Studio—named after the broadcaster Sir David Attenborough —provides a multimedia environment for educational events.
The studio plans to continue the daily lectures and demonstrations. The pieces were sent to London in 36 crates, and on 12 Maythe exhibit was unveiled to great public and media interest. The real fossil had yet to be mounted, as the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh was still being constructed to house it. As word of Dippy spread, Mr Carnegie paid to have additional copies made for display in most major European capitals and in Latin and South America, making Dippy the most-viewed dinosaur skeleton in the world.
The dinosaur quickly became an iconic representation of the museum, and has featured in many cartoons and other media, including the Disney comedy One of Our Dinosaurs Is Missing. After years on display at the museum, the dinosaur replica was removed in early to be replaced by the actual skeleton of a young blue whale. Dippy is currently on a tour of British museums as of The display of the skeleton, some 25 m long and weighing 10 tons, was only made possible in with the building of the New Whale Hall now the Large Mammals Hall.
The whale had been in storage for 42 years since its stranding on sandbanks at the mouth of Wexford HarbourIreland in March after being injured by whalers.
Since taking a cast of such a large animal was deemed prohibitively expensive, scale models were used to meticulously piece the structure together. During construction, workmen left a trapdoor within the whale's stomach, which they would use for surreptitious cigarette breaks.
Before the door was closed and sealed forever, some coins and a telephone directory were placed inside—this soon growing to an urban myth that a time capsule was left inside. Pursuant to UK law, these were all images in the public domain: Copyright, Designs and Patents Actsection 12, subsection 2. The matter never reached the courts, and the dispute was never properly settled. Instead, both parties eventually entered a dialogue in which they agreed to disagree.
Founded in by Harriet Bridgeman, the Bridgeman Art Library is an important archive for reproductions of works of art.
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Corel is a Canadian software company. Corel denied that there was any copyright pertaining to the Bridgeman photographs. While the details of the case and its rulings are intriguing in themselves, only parts are of interest here. He argued that the issue of the copyrightability of photographs was governed by the law of the United Kingdom — where the photographs had originally been published — while the question of whether an infringement had occurred in the United States was a matter of United States law.
Indeed, they were meant to be faithful reproductions of the works of art that they represented.
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One could argue that such images are a priori not originals, as the Privy Council had pointed out in the Interlego case: Skill, labour or judgment merely in the process of copying cannot confer originality. In a second decision [36 F. The two cases point at identical questions of copyright. Are photographic reproductions of works of art in the public domain protected by copyright? This is what Bridgeman and the National Portrait Gallery claim. What is the legal situation in countries other than the UK?
The following section will analyse the legal framework concerned. The copyright status of photographic reproductions of works of art in the public domain The question is: Generally, copyright protection ceases after a certain period, which is defined by the applicable law.
On expiry of this term, works are no longer copyright-protected but are in the public domain. The Bridgeman Art Library offered reproductions of such works. If a work is in the public domain, these reproductions cannot be exclusive. However, it can be almost impossible to decide from which source a reproduction has been made, in particular if there are several images in circulation.
The Bridgeman Art Library argued that some of the works of art were in private collections, to which Bridgeman had gained exclusive access, but Judge Kaplan dismissed the argument. Even if it had been clear that Corel had used the Bridgeman images, there would not have been an infringement of the copyright in the original work, since this had expired, but only of the copyright in the reproduction.
The National Portrait Gallery case points to the heart of this issue: Modern copyright has established that it is not the owner of a work of art who is the copyright holder, but the creator: Historically, however, museums have been able to control reproductions of public-domain images from their collections Butler As a rule, museums claim on their websites that they own copyright to the images of the works in their collection, as The Bridgeman Art Library still does: University Tutorial Press Ltd  2 Ch.
Indeed, despite their diverging traditions and concepts of copyright, British and US standards may not be so different cf. Specifically regulating photographs, Art. No other criteria shall be applied to determine their eligibility for protection.
The definition has since been confirmed in Painer v. And it seems to me that a photograph taken from a picture is an original photograph, in so far that to copy it is an infringement of this statute. The persuasive power of this reasoning is limited; apparently Blackburn merely asserted the conclusion, which he supported only with his personal view: To deny Graves copyright protection for his photographs would have effectively undermined his copyright in the paintings and the engravings, which he also owned.
The prevailing view on photography was far more mechanistic than it is today. Artist-photographers had to fight to obtain copyright protection for their works see for example Bigeon In photography, the relationship between originals and copies is complicated by the dual origin of the photograph itself, which comprises both creative and mechanical elements Malkan The historical argument that photography is a potentially artistic medium should not be confused with a claim that all photographs are original.
While it is true, as Allan A photograph can be as artistic as a painting, but it is not always, just as it can be of an industrial nature, but is not always. To state that every photograph is also a copy, would mean reiterating the mechanistic standpoint that was criticised in the first place. Taken together, the statements are self-contradictory; interpreted separately, they project elements of an individual photograph on the concept of photography as a medium. But it is not only the concept of originality that has made progress sinceit is also our understanding of what photography is.
This convoluted approach to photography by some legal authors is irritating, because Garnett Judge and Gervais The House of Lords emphasised the irrelevance of originality in the decision on authorship, but, as Deazley a: The reporter creates a work in a new medium directed at a different sense: In contrast, the photographer of a painting only reiterates its visual message.
The case of the photographer of a sculpture further clarifies the difference: Conversely, in Martin v. Corel as Stokes Following Alexander Baumgarten, who defined aesthetics as the science of the experiences of the senses cf.
Catalda Fine Arts, F. However, non-photographic means of reproduction, such as engraving and mezzotint, do include an element of translation, namely from colour to black and white, and from shades of colour to the graphic language of lines, stipples, or cross-hatching cf.
Engravings are created using lines and stipples in a variety of densities, while mezzotint is a technique that uses shades of grey from a pre-treated copper-plate. Both involve personal intellectual choices in terms of a design following the visual grammar of the medium employed.
Modern photography does not involve the same kind of choices; its aim is a faithful reproduction based on the test of visual consistency, a comparison of original and reproduction. Photographs serve as surrogate images Butler Indeed, as Ginsburg Cooper  L. Lane would be appropriate.
Instead of translating the visual impact of a work of art, a photographic reproduction attempts to conserve that impression with the help of its technical qualities and mechanisms. Indeed, it might even matter in other media, as the case of Appropriation Art suggests. Appropriation Art is a direction in postmodern art, which, among other intentions, aims to undermine copyright concepts and the corresponding aesthetics of originality by seemingly faithfully copying other works of art. In the second Bridgeman v.
Corel decision, Judge Kaplan referred to the non-copyrightability of works of Appropriation Art — since they are not original, they cannot be protected. The short taxonomy offered by Judge and Gervais In their hand-book The Graphic Reproduction and Photography of Works of Art, John Lewis and Edwin Smith clearly state for the reproductive photography of two-dimensional works of art: Here there is none.
Walker LR 4 QBat Butler—03 ; Malkan